rcsB and rcsA genes are present in the Kp13 genome, encoded, respectively, by predicted coding sequences KP00953 and KP04844. Figure 4 Model of regulation in the K. pneumoniae Kp13 cps cluster. Only selected genes are shown. The promoters are depicted as upside-down triangles, and the JUMPStart element is shown as a hexagon. The rectangles under each cluster represent transcriptional units, and the stems are possible Rho-independent attenuators. P3 could either drive the transcription of rmlB through orf19 or there could be other promoters (P4, P5 or P6). The possible transcriptional units are depicted. Citarinostat solubility dmso The JUMPStart element was found within promoter P2 (Figure 4). This element was identified upstream of a number of bacterial cps clusters [15, 34]. The 8-bp ops element
(5’-GGCGGTAG-3’) is located within JUMPStart and has been reported to function as a binding site for the RfaH activator protein . Indeed, learn more rfaH is found elsewhere in the Kp13 genome (KP31625), and its deduced amino acid sequence displays 80% identity with an ortholog from E. coli K12 [Swiss-Prot:P0AFW0]. A possible stem-loop structure (Figure 4) related to the Rho-independent transcription attenuator is located in the intergenic region between wzc and wbaP of the cps Kp13 cluster, as predicted by the ARNold web server  with a calculated free SCH772984 energy of −8.49 kcal/mol. Similar features have also been identified in other cps clusters from K. pneumoniae[9, 15]. Additionally, a second putative stem-loop structure (Figure 4) was predicted downstream of orf10 (ΔG = −8.20 kcal/mol). Further studies are necessary to confirm the implications of this finding; a stem-loop in this position has not been previously described. The transcription of cps Kp13 region 3 may occur from different promoters. For instance, the P3 promoter upstream rmlB may transcribe a polycistronic mRNA from
this gene up to orf19 or, alternatively, each individual promoter predicted in this region may drive the Enzalutamide transcription of a limited number of genes (Figure 4). Notably, wzy is located between defective mobile elements and is transcribed in the opposite direction of other genes in the cps cluster (Figure 1). Thus, it should have its own promoter (possibly P7). A putative −10 box was found, separated by 15 bp from its −35 counterpart, but no obvious RBS could be identified. This observation raises the question of how Kp13 coordinates expression of wzy, since this protein is also essential for the formation of CPS. Deviations from the −10 and −35 consensus sequences significantly modify the strength of each promoter , so the number of promoters could in fact be different from that proposed here.