68 Energy metabolism : Purines, pyrimidines, nucleosides, and nuc

68 Energy metabolism : Purines, pyrimidines, nucleosides, and nucleotides PG1996 Deoxyribose-phosphate aldolase −1.73 Energy metabolism : Pentose phosphate pathway PG1747 Ribose 5-phosphate isomerase PLX3397 B, putative −2.45 PG0230 Transaldolase 2.05 PG1595 Ribulose-phosphate 3-epimerase 2.22 Energy metabolism: Sugars PG1633 Galactokinase −1.89 Energy metabolism : TCA cycle PG1614 Succinate dehydrogenase 2.25 PG1615 Succinate dehydrogenase 1.60 Energy metabolism : Other PG1522 Mandelate racemase/muconate lactonizing enzyme family protein −2.24 PG0279 NADP-dependent malic

enzyme 1.82 PG1017 Pyruvate phosphate dikinase 1.75 PG1513 Phosphoribosyltransferase, putative/phosphoglycerate mutase family protein 3.05 PG1859 Glycerate kinase family protein 1.76 Biosynthesis of pyridine nucleotides PG0058 Nicotinic acid mononucleotide adenyltransferase −1.93 PG1578 Quinolinate synthetase −1.62 PG0057 Nicotinate phosphoribosyltransferase −1.61 PG0678 Pyrazinamidase/nicotinamidase, putative 2.00 Biosynthesis of menaquinone and ubiquinone PG1870 P005091 cost Methlytransferase, UbiE/COQ5 CAL-101 chemical structure family −2.60 PG1467 Methlytransferase, UbiE/COQ5 family −2.46 PG1523 Naphthoate synthase −1.89 PG1521 O-succinylbenzoic acid–CoA ligase −1.78 PG1525 Isochorismate synthase, putative −1.50 aLocus number, putative identification, and cellular role

are according to the TIGR genome database. bAverage fold difference indicates the expression of the gene by polyP addition versus no polyP addition. Cell envelope and cell division Among genes involved in biosynthesis and degradation of surface polysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides, 9 genes were repressed and 5 genes increased by polyP. Among genes related

to biosynthesis and degradation of murein sacculus and peptidoglycan, 7 genes were down-regulated (Table 3). For most bacteria, the peptidoglycan cell wall is both necessary and sufficient to determine cell shape [28]. In P. gingivalis W83 genome there is a group of genes called division/cell wall (DCW) cluster, which are involved in cell division and synthesis of peptidoglycan [29-31]: PG0575 (penicillin-binding protein 2), PG0576 (murE), PG0577 (mraY), PG0578 (murD), PG0579 (ftsW), PG0580 (murG), PG0581 (murC), PG0582 (ftsQ), PG0583 (ftsA), and PG0584 (ftsZ). Among these, mraY, L-NAME HCl murD, ftsW, murG, murC, and ftsQ (PG0577- PG0582) were down-regulated by polyP75. It seems that the reduced expression of the genes related to cell envelope biosynthesis in polyP-exposed P. gingivalis may be a result from disruption of the electron transport and reduced production of ATP, since ATP is fundamental for many metabolic processes in bacteria including cell wall biosynthesis and protein synthesis [32]. These transcriptional changes are partially in agreement with the previous report using Bacillus cereus in which polyP inhibited the bacterial cell division [10]. However, unlike B.

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