Photo: Dag Inge Danielsen The plants in Great-granny’s Garden In

Photo: Dag Inge Danielsen The plants in Great-granny’s Garden In total, ca. 500 ornamental plants have been collected throughout South-East Norway during the project. Collecting location and cultivation history of each plant, including its local vernacular names, are documented in our database (http://​www.​nhm.​uio.​no), but details are not publicly available. An important criterion for each accession has been that the plant’s history dates back to at least 1950. We have selected this year as the end of the period of interest because traditional gardening in Norway persisted up to then. Sometimes the history can be traced as far

back as around 1900. Before 1900, the history of a particular plant Emricasan chemical structure mostly fades away in peoples memory but in a few cases, it can be followed eFT508 solubility dmso further back through written sources. The plants have seldom been bought but have either followed people from home to home, or have been received as a gift or through plant exchange among neighbours, families, and friends. Some cultivars are therefore rather local. The collections in Great-granny’s Garden include cultivars of many different species of trees, shrubs, perennials, and bulbs. People have also collected plants in nature and used them as

ornamentals, e.g. Convallaria majalis L., Hepatica nobilis learn more Schreb., Primula veris L., Polemonium caeruleum L., Trollius europaeus L., Rhodiola rosea L., and Hylotelephium maximum (L.) Holub. Some of these species collected from the wild are also included in Great-granny’s Garden. Here, only a few examples of the plants we grow are highlighted. Examples of plants grown in Great-granny’s Garden The flowering season in Great-granny’s Garden

starts in late April with a diversity of Primula × pubescens Jacq. cultivars (Fig. 4a–d). In Norway, their cultivation dates back to at least the seventeenth century (Balvoll and Weisæth 1994) and we know that they were very common in Central Norway in the eighteenth century (Baade 1768) and in Northern Norway, north to Lapland, in the nineteenth century (Schübeler 1886–1889). Nowadays, many of the old Primula × pubescens cultivars are either lost or are on the verge of disappearing. Interestingly, most variation is still found in the central and northern parts of the country where cultivation has been most extensive. Fig. 4 Fludarabine price The flowering season starts in April with a variety of Garden Auricles, Primula × pubescens. Photos: Oddmund Fostad One of the rarest plants in Norwegian gardens is Scopolia carniolica Jacq. (Fig. 5). It flowers in early May. It was first published in 1760 as ‘Atropa2’ in Joannes Antonius [Giovanni Antonio] Scopoli’s Flora Carniolica (Scopoli 1760) and later described under its current name by Jacquin (1764). Scopoli sent his flora to Linnaeus and offered him plants from the Slovenian province of Crain in 1760 (Stafleu and Cowan 1985; The Linnaean Correspondence: L27982009).

, Valencia, CA) Seven housekeeping genes (adk, gyrB, metE, mdh,

, Valencia, CA). Seven housekeeping genes (adk, gyrB, metE, mdh, pntA, purM and pyrC) selected based on a previous study [32] were used for the MLST (Octavia et al. manuscript in preparation). The amplified products were sequenced commercially by Beijing Genomics Institute. PFGE was performed according to the US CDC PulseNet standardised PFGE protocol for V. cholerae[31]. Simplex PCR assays (Table 2) were used for the detection of ctxAB[39], tcpA[40], zot[41], NAG-ST [16], T3SS (vcsC2 and vcsV2) [16, CYT387 in vivo 28], and performed in a Mastercycler (Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany). The reactions were carried out as follows: 5 min at 94°C; followed by 30 cycles of 30 s at 94°C, 30 s at the annealing temperature

specified in Table 2, and 30 s at 72°C; followed by a final 5 min at 72°C. For detection of ompW[42], toxR[42] and hlyA[43] genes, new primer pairs (Table 2) were designed to be used in

a multiplex real time PCR assay. The reaction was performed in an ABI7500 fast real-time PCR system (Applied Biosystems, CA, USA). The cycling conditions were as follows: 2 min at 95°C, followed by 40 cycles of 15 s at 95°C, and 45 s at the annealing temperature specified in Table 2. Isolate N10002 was typed by MLST and PCR but not typed by PFGE nor tested for antibiotic sensitivity as only DNA was available. Bioinformatics Sequence alignments were done using ClustalW [46]. The PFGE dendrogram was constructed using the unweighted pair group method with Copanlisib research buy arithmetic mean algorithm and Dice coefficient of two patterns at 0.5%

pattern optimisation and 1.5% band position tolerance, available from Bionumerics (Applied Math). Note that one band in PT17 (band 16 from higher molecular weight end, Figure 2A) was recognised as two bands by the software to which manual correction was applied to become one band as this affected the placement of PT17. Sequence types were numbered from ST80 onwards. ST1 to ST79 were pre-assigned to isolates of another study (Octavia et al. manuscript in preparation). eBURST [33] L-NAME HCl was used to identify clonal complexes which are defined using the difference of one out of the seven genes typed. Minimum spanning tree using the allelic difference between isolates of the seven housekeeping genes was constructed using Bionumerics (Applied Math). The Simpson’s index of diversity (D value) [47] was calculated using an in-house program, MLEECOMP package [48]. Antibiotic resistance Antimicrobial susceptibility testing for 13 antibiotics including amikacin, ampicillin, cephalothin, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, erythromycin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin, rifampicin, SXT and tetracycline, was carried out using disk diffusion assay according to the protocol of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute [49]. Antibiotic discs were purchased from Oxoid (Hampshire, UK). Results were analysed using WHONET 5.4 software (WHO Collaborating Centre for the Surveillance of Antibiotics Resistance, Geneva, selleck chemicals llc Switzerland).

J Appl Phys 2008, 103:094112 10 1063/1 2917402CrossRef 28 McCal

J Appl Phys 2008, 103:094112. 10.1063/1.2917402CrossRef 28. McCall SL, Plat PM, Wolff PA: Surface enhanced Raman scattering. Phys Lett 1980, 77A:381–383.CrossRef 29. Cotton TM, Uphaus RH, Mobius DJ: Distance dependence of SERS: enhancement

in Langmuir-Blodgett dye multilayers. J Phys Chem 1986, 90:6071–6073. 10.1021/j100281a003CrossRef 30. Maher RC: SERS hot spots. In Raman Spectroscopy for Nanomaterials Characterization. Berlin: Springer; 2012:215–260.CrossRef 31. Kleinman SL, Frontiera RR, Henry A-I, Dieringer JA, Van Duyne RP: Creating, characterizing, and controlling chemistry with SERS hot spots. Phys Chem Chem Phys 2013, 15:21–36. Berzosertib clinical trial 10.1039/c2cp42598jCrossRef 32. Borys NJ, Shafran E, Lupton JM: Surface plasmon delocalization in silver nanoparticle aggregates revealed by subdiffraction supercontinuum hot spots. Scientific Reports 2013, 3:2090. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions SC prepared the nanoisland film samples, measured the absorption spectra, and processed the resonance shift calculations. AM deposited the TiO2 on the find more samples and measured the Raman spectra. AD performed the AFM studies of the samples. AAL and SH supervised the whole work. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Carbon

dots (C-dots) are a new member of the carbon nanomaterial family after C60, carbon nanotubes, and graphene and were firstly discovered by accident when researchers were trying to purify single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) fabricated by arc discharge methods [1]. Since then, many studies concerning C-dots have been reported [2–4]. C-dots have attracted much attention due to their well-defined, nearly isotropic shapes together with their ultrafine

dimensions and tunable surface functionalities. Moreover, a variety of simple, fast, and cheap synthetic routes for C-dots have been developed in the past few years including arc discharge, laser ablation, Urease electrochemical oxidation, hydrothermal, combustion/thermal, supported synthetic, and microwave methods [4–6]. Most notable superiority, however, is their potential as replacements for toxic heavy metal-based quantum dots (QDs) which are currently intensively used and are plagued by safety concerns and known environmental hazards [2, 5, 6]. C-dots have proven themselves in various applications with photoluminescence properties comparable and even superior to those of QDs [2, 3, 7], such as high selleck products photostability, tunable emission, large two-photon excitation cross section [8, 9], and non-blinking fluorescence [10]. C-dots have been successfully applied in bioimaging [11], both in vitro [8] and in vivo [12], and even showed significant utility in multiphoton imaging [9]. Moreover, beyond these apparently straightforward applications, more complicated designs aimed at multifunctional nanosystems based on C-dots have been reported.

6 kDa) was sequenced at the Protein Core Facility of the Institut

6 kDa) was sequenced at the Protein Core Facility of the Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Texas at Austin. Construction of the click here plasmid for complementation of the gluQ-rs mutation This plasmid was constructed from the pATGGQRS plasmid in which the T7 promoter was removed by digestion with BglII and NcoI enzymes and replaced by the TRC promoter obtained from pTRC99a plasmid by amplification and digestion with BamHI and NcoI to obtain the pTRCGQ plasmid. The empty plasmid (pCM) was constructed by

incorporating the TRC promoter into the pET15c plasmid. Inactivation of gluQ-rs gene in S. flexneri Deletion of gluQ-rs was carried out using the λ red recombinase method [44] with the following modifications. S. flexneri 2457T carrying pKD46 and prepared as described elsewhere [44] was transformed selleck products with a purified PCR fragment amplified from the E. coli ΔgluQ-rs::kan mutant strain using primers dksAF and pcnBR (Table 2), increasing the homologous DNA region to more than 450 bp at each side. The mutant was isolated following overnight growth at 37°C on LB-agar containing kanamycin (50 μg/ml). The deletion was confirmed by PCR using the same pair of primers (dksAF-pcnBR) and using each primer together with an internal primer as described previously [44]. The presence of the S. flexneri virulence plasmid was also confirmed by PCR amplification of the virF gene using primers virFF and virFR (Table 2). Effect of the absence

of gluQ-rs gene in S. flexneri metabolism The effect of the deletion of the gluQ-rs gene on the metabolism of S. flexneri was analyzed by Biolog phenotype MicroArrays following the manufacturer’s instructions VX-680 molecular weight (Biolog, Inc., Almeda, CA). Strains were grown at 30°C overnight and 5 ml of LB was inoculated with a 1:100 dilution and grown at 37°C to reach an OD650nm of 0.5. The cells were then washed and resuspended to 2.5 x 107 cfu/ml and diluted 200 fold in to a solution of IF-10a medium (Biolog). Each well was inoculated with 1.2 x 104 cfu (0.1 ml per well) into the corresponding plates and incubated for 24

hrs at 37°C. The metabolism was recorded and analyzed by the Omnilog software (V 1.20.02) (Biolog, Inc., Almeda, CA). Acknowledgements We are grateful Dolutegravir cell line to Dr. Dieter Söll from Yale University, USA, for providing the E. coli strains BL21(DE3) and W3110 ΔgluQ-rs::kan. Also, we would like to thank to Dr. Claude Parsot from the Institute Pasteur, France, for providing the pQF50 plasmid and advice in the determination of the N-terminal sequence of GluQ-RS. We appreciate Dr. Elizabeth Wyckoff for her critical review of this manuscript. This publication was funded by Grants from the Department of Research, University of Chile DI I2 06/04-2 and Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnólogico (FONDECYT) 1080308 to J.C.S. and Grant AI 169351 from the National Institutes of Health to S.M.P. References 1. Ibba M, Söll D: Aminoacyl-tRNA synthesis. Annu Rev Biochem 2000, 69:617–650.

No other between trial differences were noted Cardiovascular cha

No other between trial differences were noted. Cardiovascular changes during exercise are depicted in Table 1. No significant differences in either resting or post-exercise HR occurred between trials. In addition, no differences occurred in resting BP between trials, however, Ilomastat systolic BP post-exercise was significantly lower at T2 and T3 compared to T1. No other differences existed in systolic or diastolic BP response between trials. No changes in RER occurred between trials. Figure 3 Time to Exhaustion. * Significantly different

from all other trials. Figure 4 Δ Time to Exhaustion. * = Significantly different from ΔT2 Table 1 Cardiovascular Changes during Exercise Protocol Variable T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 Resting Heart Rate (beats·min-1) 75.7 ± 14.6 78.6 ± 15.4 72.9 ± 13.8 76.7 ± 17.6 76.9 ± 15.8 IP Heart Rate (beats·min-1) 180.2 ± 13.8 187.8 ± 9.6 179.7 ± 18.0 183.0 ± 12.5 184.2 ± 13.0 Resting SBP (mmHg) 117.0 ± 6.0 112.4 ± 4.8 111.5 ± 5.5 114.8 ± 5.2 113.0 ± 7.7 IP SBP (mmHg) 167.3 BIIB057 chemical structure ± 6.0 131.3 ± 8.1* 136.4 ± 20.3* 150.3 ± 23.0 152.5 ± 19.6 Resting DBP (mmHg) 77.3 ± 3.6 74.7 ± 4.8 75.4

± 3.8 79.0 ± 2.7 77.2 ± 5.9 IP DBP (mmHg) 88.4 ± 7.0 86.0 ± 3.5 84.0 ± 9.4 88.3 ± 11.6 84.8 ± 11.9 RER 1.12 ± 0.09 1.10 ± 0.07 1.12 ± 0.07 1.08 ± 0.10 1.07 ± 0.08 IP = immediate post; SBP = systolic blood pressure; DBP = diastolic blood pressure. * = significant difference versus T1. All data are reported as mean ± SD. There

were significant main effects for both La- (p = 0.000) and GLU (p = 0.000) responses to the exercise Farnesyltransferase protocol (Table 2). There were also significant elevations at IP in both of these variables compared to all other time points. However, there were no significant differences between trials. A main effect for time (p = 0.011) also occurred for plasma osmolality. Posm at IP (300.4 ± 16.7 mOsm) was significantly elevated compared to BL (295.0 ± 3.9 mOsm, p = 0.010) and RHY (293.9 ± 4.9 mOsm, p = 0.002) but, not DHY (297.0 ± 4.5 mOsm, p = 0.100). No other significant differences were noted. In addition, no between trial differences in Posm were observed. A significant main effect for time (p = 0.001) was also observed for plasma potassium concentrations. Plasma potassium was significantly elevated at IP compared to BL (p = 000), DHY (p = 0.000) and RHY (p = 0.017). No other differences were noted and no between trial effects were observed. A significant main effect for time (p = 0.000) was also observed for plasma sodium. Plasma sodium concentrations at IP and DHY were significantly greater than that observed at BL (p = 0.000 and p = 0.000, respectively) and RHY (p = 0.000 and p = 0.000, respectively). When collapsed across time, plasma sodium concentrations were significantly greater at T2 than compared to all other experimental conditions.

We also thank Du Qingyun and Qian Hongliang for the production of

We also thank Du Qingyun and Qian Hongliang for the production of Mabs, Tanja Kiener for proofreading of the manuscript. We declare no competing interests. References 1. Fouchier RA, Munster V, Wallensten A, Bestebroer TM, Herfst S, Smith D, Rimmelzwaan GF, Olsen B, Osterhaus AD: Characterization of a novel influenza A virus hemagglutinin subtype (H16) obtained from black-headed gulls. J Virol

2005,79(5):2814–2822.PubMedCrossRef 2. Thontiravong A, Payungporn S, Keawcharoen J, Chutinimitkul S, Wattanodorn S, Damrongwatanapokin S, Chaisingh A, Theamboonlers A, Poovorawan Y, Oraveerakul K: The single-step Repotrectinib datasheet multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay for detecting H5 and H7 avian influenza A viruses. Tohoku J Exp Med 2007,211(1):75–79.PubMedCrossRef 3. Apisarnthanarak A, Warren DK, Fraser VJ: Issues relevant to the adoption and modification of hospital infection-control recommendations for avian influenza (H5N1

infection) in developing countries. Clin Infect Dis 2007,45(10):1338–1342.PubMedCrossRef 4. Babakir-Mina M, Balestra E, Perno CF, Aquaro S: Influenza virus A (H5N1): AR-13324 a pandemic risk? New Microbiol 2007,30(2):65–78.PubMed 5. Park AW, Glass K: Dynamic patterns of avian and human influenza in east and southeast Asia. Lancet Infect Dis 2007,7(8):543–548.PubMedCrossRef 6. Peiris JS, de Jong MD, Guan Y: Avian influenza virus (H5N1): a threat to human health. Clin Microbiol Rev 2007,20(2):243–267.PubMedCrossRef

7. Alexander DJ, Brown IH: History of highly pathogenic avian influenza. Rev Sci Tech 2009,28(1):19–38.PubMed 8. Organization. WH: Cumulative number of confirmed human cases of avian influenza A/(H5N1) reported to WHO. [http://​www.​who.​int/​csr/​disease/​avian_​influenza/​country/​cases_​table_​2010_​08_​31/​en/​index.​html] 2009. 9. Kaiser L, Briones MS, Hayden FG: eFT508 solubility dmso Performance of virus isolation and Directigen Flu A to detect influenza A virus in experimental human infection. J Clin Virol 1999,14(3):191–197.PubMedCrossRef 10. Woo PC, Chiu SS, Seto WH, Peiris M: Cost-effectiveness of rapid diagnosis of viral respiratory tract infections in pediatric patients. J Clin Microbiol Adenylyl cyclase 1997,35(6):1579–1581.PubMed 11. Chen J, Jin M, Yu Z, Dan H, Zhang A, Song Y, Chen H: A latex agglutination test for the rapid detection of avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 and its clinical application. J Vet Diagn Invest 2007,19(2):155–160.PubMed 12. Wei HL, Bai GR, Mweene AS, Zhou YC, Cong YL, Pu J, Wang S, Kida H, Liu JH: Rapid detection of avian influenza virus a and subtype H5N1 by single step multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Virus Genes 2006,32(3):261–267.PubMedCrossRef 13.

Protein per 60 μg were done electrophoresis experiment in 10% SDS

Protein per 60 μg were done electrophoresis experiment in 10% SDS-PAGE at 4°C, steady flow(10 mA in composition gel, 15 mA in separation gel), then transfered into nitrocellulose membranes in ice bath at voltage-sdtabilizing (Gibco BRL, USA). The membranes were blocked with 5% skim milk in TBST (20 mmol/L Tris-Hcl at PH 8.0, 150 mmol/L NaCl, and 0.05% Tween 20) for 1 hour at room temperature, the membranes were probed with 1:500 dilution of anti-ER alpha antibodies (Sc-542, Santa Cruz, USA), 1:400 mouse monoclonal antibody to MMP-9 (Sc-21733, Santa Cruz, USA)

and 1:500 mouse monoclonal antibody to cyclinD1 (Sc-8396, Santa Cruz, USA) at 4°C overnight, followed by incubation in a 1:2000 dilution of secondary antibodies conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (Zhongshan Golden Bridge Biotechnology, China).

Protein bands were detected using ECL detection system (Zhongshan Golden Bridge Biotechnology, China), and β-actin staining served as the check details internal standard for the membranes. All of the Western blots were performed at least three times. Boyden Chamber Assays Cells groups described previously, Boyden chambers(containing transwell filter membrane, Corning Costar Corp, Cambridge, MA) invasion assay was carried out as instruction, as described previously BIX 1294 mouse with a slight modification, suspensions of 1 × 105 cells in 200 μl of RPMI1640 containing 0.1% fetal calf serum were plated on the upper compartment of the chamber. Conditioned medium(800 μl, supernatant fluid that cultured NIH3T3 cells with serum-free medium) was placed in the lower compartment. After 24 h at 37°C, noninvasive cells on the upper surface of the filters were removed completely with a cotton swab carefully. The filters were then fixed with 95% alcohol for 15 minutes and stained with 4% trypan blue. Cells on the lower surface were photographed under a microscope, and counted. The data were expressed as mean ± S.D. invasion index: cells through Matrigel/cells without Matrigel ×100%. Experiment in every filter was performed

at least three times. Cells proliferation state analysis Cell groups described previously, 24 filters were seed with 5 × 103 cells per filter, cells in three filters were digest by trypsin per 24 hours and counted cells number, measured mean value. continued to observe for 7 days, drew growth curve. CYTH4 The 96 filter were seed with 2 × 103 cells/filter, and cells were cultured for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours, respectively, then added 20 ul MTT to cells and cultured for 4 hours. After removing the culture medium and adding 200 ul DMSO to cells, cells were shaken well for 10 minutes, and the absorbance(A570 nm) were detected by enzyme linked immunodetection analysator. Cells growth curve were drawn after collection datas of A570 nm at 4 time points successfully. The zero setting was the blank control added culture medium, every experiment was repeated three times.


Cell Environ 28:697–708CrossRef Juenger TE, Sen S,


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efficiency in Arabidopsis. Nature 436:866–870PubMedCrossRef SDHB McKay JK, Richards JH, Mitchell-Olds T (2003) Genetics of drought adaptation in Arabidopsis thaliana: I. Pleiotropy contributes to genetic correlations among ecological traits. Mol Ecol 12:1137–1151PubMedCrossRef McKay JK, Richards JH, Nemali KS, Sen S, Mitchell-Olds T, Boles S, Stahl EA, Wayne T, Juenger TE (2008) Genetics of drought adaptation in Arabidopsis thaliana II. QTL analysis of a new mapping population, Kas-1 × Tsu-1. Evolution 62:3014–3026PubMedCrossRef Monda K, Negi J, Iio A, Poziotinib Kusumi K, Kojima M, Hashimoto M, Sakakibara H, Iba K (2011) Environmental regulation of stomatal response in the Arabidopsis Cvi-0 ecotype. Planta 234:555–563PubMedCrossRef Nakano T, Suzuki K, Fujimura T, Shinshi H (2006) Genome-wide analysis of the ERF gene family in Arabidopsis and rice.

Tested strains were initially grown in TY to late log phase (109<

Tested strains were initially grown in TY to late log phase (109

cells/ml; O.D600 nm 0.9-1.0). Aliquots of 1 ml of the starting cultures were centrifuged; the pelleted cells were washed with fresh TY and finally resuspended in 1 ml of the medium. Ten μl of the bacterial suspensions (~107 cells) were inoculated into 340 μl of TY broth in Bioscreen Honey comb 100-well plates which were incubated at 30°C with continuous shaking. Absorbance readings at 600 nm were recorded every 2 h until the cultures reached the late selleck kinase inhibitor stationary phase. OD ACP-196 datasheet values of uninoculated media were subtracted from cultures OD readings to normalize data for background prior to plotting. Determinations were done in triplicate for each strain. Construction of the S. meliloti hfq mutant derivatives A 1,684-bp DNA region containing the 243-bp hfq ORF and flanking sequences (714-bp upstream and 727-bp downstream of hfq) was PCR amplified with Pfu polymerase using the primers pair Hfq_Fw/Hfq_Rv

SB203580 mouse (for all the oligonucleotides cited hereafter see the additional file 3: oligonucleotide sequences) and S. meliloti 1021 genomic DNA as template. This DNA fragment was inserted into pGEM®-T Easy vector generating plasmid pGEMhfq. For the construction of the S. meliloti 2011 hfq insertion mutant

derivatives about two internal regions of the gene were Taq amplified from pGEMhfq with primers combinations hfqforw1/hfqrev2 and hfqforw3/hfqrev4 and subcloned into the suicide vector pK18mobsacB generating plasmids pK18_1.2 and pK18_3.4, respectively. Both plasmids were independently conjugated into the 2011 wild-type strain by triparental matings, using pRK2013 as helper, yielding mutants 2011-1.2 and 2011-3.4 which were selected as KmrSmr colonies in MM agar as a result of pK18mobsacB integration into the hfq gene by single homologous recombination events. Mutations were verified by PCR and the precise location of plasmid insertion into the hfq gene was determined by sequencing of the PCR products. For the generation of the S. meliloti 1021 hfq deletion mutant, plasmid pGEMhfq was amplified with Pfu polymerase with divergent primers (hfqi_1/hfqi_2) flanking the hfq ORF and carrying an internal HindIII restriction site. The PCR product was HindIII-digested and autoligated generating plasmid pGEMΔhfq that contains a 1,447-bp S. meliloti 1021 genomic region in which the hfq ORF was deleted and replaced by a HindIII site.

II clade, RD23 was not deleted, thus showing that deletion of RD2

II clade, RD23 was not deleted, thus showing that deletion of RD23 is not correlated with sensitivity to erythromycin. The molecular mechanisms of resistance to erythromycin have not been functionally established, but mutations identified in domain V of the 23S rRNA of biovar II strains, could provide a likely explanation [33]. Although 25 VNTR markers have been BIIB057 described for the typing of Francisella, it is pragmatic Selleckchem A 1155463 to investigate only loci of interest depending on the prevalent subspecies of F. tularensis, the efficiency of PCR assays for single loci, and

existing data [1, 13, 34]. Sequence analysis of the locus Ft-M3 resulted in two different repeats denominated here as Ft-M3a corresponding with SSTR9E and Ft-M3b corresponding with SSTR9A as described previously by Johansson et al. [35]. Johansson et al. and Byström et al. also found that locus Ft-M3 is the most variable marker [1, 13]. In the Francisella genome variations of DNA sequences in spite of identical repeat length have been described for short-sequence tandem repeats [35, 36]. Locus Ft-M6 showed less variability with only three PCR fragment sizes being observed

among the strains. We obtained the same amplicon sizes that were described in previous studies for locus Ft-M3 (Additional file 1: Table S2) [14, 37] and for locus Ft-M6 (Additional file 1: Table S2) [14, 37]. Svensson et al. developed a sophisticated real-time PCR array for hierarchical identification of Francisella isolates [15]. Only three (Ftind33, Ftind38, Ftind49) AZD5363 out of five INDEL loci were

discriminatory among our set of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica isolates. Ftind48 is a marker for B.I to B.IV clades (non-japonica/non-california) and is not expected to vary for these isolates, and Ftind50 is targeting a specific deletion that so far only has been found in LVS. It was possible to simplify these assays to conventional PCR assays that allowed a simple read out based on gel electrophoresis. Histamine H2 receptor We identified clusters of strains that had the same INDELs and SNPs as strains described by Svensson et al. [15]. In our study the analysis of VNTR and INDELs of two F. tularensis subsp. holarctica strains (06T0001, 10T0191) that were passaged twenty times in Ma-104 cells showed that these genomic elements were stable. Johansson et al. demonstrated for two VNTR loci (SSTR9 and SSTR16) that they were actually stable over 55 passages [35]. The VNTR pattern for strains belonging to clade B.I was more variable compared with the pattern obtained for clade B. IV (Additional file 1: Table S2), as was observed previously [21, 23–25]. This might indicate that clade B.IV is more recently introduced in Germany than clade B.I. We have applied several typing tools in a polyphasic approach in order to determine their value for identifying groups of Francisella strains in Germany. We found strains belonging to biovars I and II of F.