77, 95% CI = 0.71-0.84, P < 0.001) between phases. The decline in pack display coincided with the full implementation of plain packaging from December 2012, was stronger in venues with children present and was limited to mid and high socio-economic status (SES) areas. The proportion of packs orientated face-up declined from 85.4% of fully branded packs pre-PP to 73.6% of plain packs post-PP (IRR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.79-0.95, P = 0.002). Alternatively, the proportions concealed by telephones, wallets or other items (4.4% of fully branded packs pre-PP and 9.5% of plain packs post-PP; IRR = 2.33, 95% CI = 1.72-3.17, P < 0.001) and in an external case (1.5-3.5% of all packs;
IRR = 2.79, 95% CI = 1.77-4.40, P < 0.001) increased. Low SES areas evidenced the greatest increase in pack concealment and the greatest decline in face-up pack orientation.
Australia’s 2012 policy Lapatinib of plain packaging Pevonedistat molecular weight and larger pictorial health warnings on cigarette and tobacco packs, smoking in outdoor areas of cafes, restaurants and bars and personal pack display (packs clearly visible on tables) declined. Further, a small proportion of smokers took steps to conceal packs that would otherwise be visible. Both are promising outcomes to minimize exposure to tobacco promotion.”
“Background: Emergency contraception (EC) has been available behind the counter without a prescription since 2006. Evidence has shown increased use of EC among young women, but no recent findings have been published to date of current use.
Methods: This cross-sectional study surveyed 482 college heterosexually active college women attending a large public university who either visited the college-based health clinic or were enrolled in selected undergraduate classes. Prediction models were created for selleck kinase inhibitor each outcome, EC consideration and use, using Poisson regression with robust variance estimates.
Just over 58% of college women sampled reported ever considering EC, and just under 47% reported actual use. Consideration and actual EC use were highest for students who were nonwhite and who reported more sexual partners. Although female students who did not use condoms were more likely to use EC, there was no difference in EC relative to hormonal contraception use.
Conclusions: As EC becomes both better known and more readily available, use is expected to grow. Moving forward, greater attention is needed to the efficacy of EC use on preventing unwanted pregnancies.”
“Background: Frequency of rehospitalization and associated resource requirements are unknown for combat casualties. Differences may also exist in readmission rates for injuries to separate body regions. This study investigates rehospitalization of combat casualties with a hypothesis that extremity injuries cause the greatest number of readmissions and require the greatest resources to treat.