In addition, loss of AC5 compromises the ability of both contextu

In addition, loss of AC5 compromises the ability of both contextual and discrete cues to modulate instrumental behavior.”
“We investigated whether an inflammation-dependent activation of the brain occurs in response to systemic intraperitoneal

(i.p.) or local injections of macrophage-activating lipopeptide-2 (MALP-2) into a subcutaneous Fosbretabulin (s.c.) air pouch, and whether local (peripheral) or central cyclooxygenase (COX)-2-dependent formations of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) are involved in MALP-2-induced illness responses. Body temperature, activity, food and water intake were measured telemetrically. Local (s.c.) and circulating levels of PGE(2) were measured by an ELISA. Inflammatory activation of the CP-690550 in vivo brain in response to MALP-2 was determined by immunohistochemical detection of the transcription factors NF kappa B and STAT3

in cell nuclei as well as the appearance of COX-2 at the same sites. S.c. treatment with the preferential COX-2 inhibitor meloxicam attenuated, but not abolished fever induced by local injections of MALP-2 into the pouch. Local MALP-2-induced formation of PGE(2) was blunted by treatment with meloxicam. In the brain, i.p. stimulation with MALP-2-induced nuclear STAT3- and NF kappa B-translocation in the vasculature and the sensory circumventricular organs, which was accompanied by an increase

in COX-2 immunoreactivity (IR) in endothelial cells. Local MALP-2-treatment induced a moderate STAT3 activation and a small but significant increase in COX-2 IR while no NF kappa B-activation could be observed in the brains of these animals. We demonstrated that the activation of the brain STAT3 (NF kappa ID-8 B)-COX-2 singling cascade seems to be involved in the manifestation of brain-controlled illness symptoms induced by systemic and local inflammatory stimulation with MALP-2. The present data further suggest a contribution of peripherally produced PGE(2) to MALP-2-induced activation of brain sites implicated in fever. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Research on the role of the hippocampus in object recognition memory has produced conflicting results. Previous studies have used permanent hippocampal lesions to assess the requirement for the hippocampus in the object recognition task. However, permanent hippocampal lesions may impact performance through effects on processes besides memory consolidation including acquisition, retrieval, and performance. To overcome this limitation, we used an intrahippocampal injection of the GABA agonist muscimol to reversibly inactivate the hippocampus immediately after training mice in two versions of an object recognition task.

CMS and clomipramine’s effects on 5-HT1AR, 5-HT2AR, and 5-HT2CR m

CMS and clomipramine’s effects on 5-HT1AR, 5-HT2AR, and 5-HT2CR mRNA expression were assessed by in situ hybridization

histochemistry in selected subfields of the hippocampus and in the lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), two regions implicated in the pathophysiology of major depression. CMS and clomipramine treatment induced sex-differentiated effects on rats’ hedonic status and enhanced 5-HT1AR mRNA expression in the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) hippocampal region of male rats. Additionally, CMS attenuated 5-HT1AR mRNA expression in the OFC of male rats and clomipramine reversed this effect. Moreover, 5-HT2AR mRNA levels in the OFC were enhanced in females but decreased in males, while clomipramine reversed this effect only in females. CMS increased 5-HT2CR mRNA expression in the CA4 region of both sexes and this effect this website was attenuated by clomipramine. Present data exposed that both CMS and clomipramine treatment may induce sex-differentiated and region-distinctive effects on 5-HTRs mRNA expression and further implicate the serotonergic system in the manifestation of sexually dimorphic neurobehavioral responses to stress. (c) 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: Children with bladder exstrophy-epispadias complex undergoing en-dourethral autologous myoblast transplantation to treat urinary incontinence were evaluated

at 4 years of followup regarding the safety, efficacy and durability of the procedure, and health related quality of life. Materials and Methods: Seven boys underwent autologous myoblast transplantation between May and December 2006. All patients had persistent urinary

incontinence after bladder neck reconstruction and bulking agent injection. Patients were followed for 4 years after autologous myoblast transplantation regarding clinical outcomes and cystometric, urodynamic, uroflowmetric and urethrocystoscopic evaluations. Health related quality of life was also measured before treatment and at final followup. Cyclooxygenase (COX) Results: No evidence of urinary obstruction was observed. Five children (71%) were completely continent and 2 (29%) were socially dry with complete daytime dryness at final followup. Health related quality of life was improved significantly. Urodynamic studies revealed a progressive increase in bladder capacity (p <0.001). Mean detrusor leak point pressure showed a 27 cm H2O (158%) increase during 4-year followup. Uroflowmetry parameters of voided volume and average maximum flow rate were improved significantly (p <0.001). Conclusions: The 4-year outcomes demonstrate that autologous myoblast transplantation for urinary incontinence in children with bladder exstrophy-epispadias complex is relatively reliable, reproducible, safe and effective with minimal morbidity. This novel treatment represents a promising therapeutic approach in patients with urinary incontinence.

02) by both per protocol and intention to treat analyses A margi

02) by both per protocol and intention to treat analyses. A marginally significant

(p = 0.0646) effect was observed for the Reading test (estimated effect size: 2.21; 95% CI: -0.14; 4.56) only in the per protocol analysis.

Conclusion: This study suggests improvement of verbal learning ability RG-7388 order and memory of children when supplemented with a fish-flour spread rich in n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Appropriate attention levels are pivotal for cognitive processes, and individual differences in attentional functioning are related to variations in the interplay of neurotransmitters. The attention network theory reflects attention as a non-homogenous set of separate

neural networks: alerting, orienting and conflicting. In the present study, the role of variations in GRIN2B, which encodes the NR2B OSI906 subunit of N-methyl-n-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, was explored with regard to the regulation of arousal and attention by comparing the efficiency of the three attentional networks as measured with the Attention Network Test (ANT). Two synonymous SNPs in GRIN2B, rs1806201 (T888T) and rs1806191 (H1178H) were genotyped in 324 young Caucasian adults. Results revealed a highly specific modulatory influence of SNP rs1806201 on alerting processes with subjects homozygous for the frequent C allele displaying higher alerting network scores as compared to the other two genotype groups (CT and TT). This effect is due to the fact that in the no cue condition faster reaction times were evident in participants carrying at least one of the rare T alleles, possibly as a result of more effective glutamatergic neurotransmission. The results might be further explained by a dissociation between

tonic and phasic alertness modulated by the GRIN2B genotype and by a ceiling effect, meaning that subjects cannot be phasicly alert in excess to a certain level. Altogether, the results show that variations in GRIN2B have to be taken into consideration when examining attentional processes. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Affective impairment is observed in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Low levels of long-chain RVX-208 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), specifically omega-3 (omega-3) fatty acids in blood measures have been linked to a range of behavioural and mood disorders including ADHD. However, nothing is known about the relationship between omega-3 and brain function in children with ADHD. In the current study, 20 adolescent boys with ADHD were assessed for total lipid fractions in red blood cells and their event-related potential (ERP) response to the presentation of facial expressions of happiness, sadness and fearfulness.

We compared the results to findings from developmental attentiona

We compared the results to findings from developmental attentional dyslexia. Whereas both populations make between-word migrations, they crucially differ in the type and distribution of errors. In developmental attentional dyslexia, omission of identical letters that appear in the same position

in the two words is prevalent, but it was rare in skilled reading. Other errors such as intrusions and buffer migrations also happened only in dyslexia but not in skilled reading. The different error patterns may suggest that different mechanisms underlie the incorrect reading in short exposure and the reading impairment in attentional dyslexia. Furthermore, the abundance of find more between-word TPCA-1 datasheet migrations and the absence of letter position errors within words support that notion of two separate functions, one for letter-to-word binding, the other for letter position encoding. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“To compare standard PCR/cloning and single genome sequencing (SGS) in their ability to reflect actual intra-patient polymorphism of HIV-1 populations, a total of 530 HIV-1 pro-pol sequences obtained by both sequencing techniques from a set of 17 ART naive patient specimens was analyzed. For each specimen, 12 and 15 sequences, on average, were characterized

by the two techniques. Using phylogenetic analysis, tests for panmixia and entropy, and Bland-Altman plots, no difference in population structure or genetic diversity eltoprazine was shown in 14 of the 17 subjects. Evidence of sampling bias by the presence of subsets of identical sequences was found by either method. Overall, the study shows that neither method was more biased than the other, and providing that an adequate number of PCR templates is analyzed, and that the bulk sequencing captures the diversity of the viral population, either

method is likely to provide a similar measure of population diversity. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Amelioration of the rightward spatial attention bias in patients with hemispatial neglect following manipulations of non-spatial attention suggests that spatial attention and mechanisms related to the regulation of attention are interrelated. Studies in normal, healthy subjects have shown similar modulation in spatial bias following tonic and phasic changes in attention suggesting that this interaction is a general mechanism of attention rather than a curiosity of the neglect disorder. The current study examined this attentional interaction to determine if perceptual processes favoring one hemisphere over the other are affected by this relationship. Participants first made rapid discriminations of Navon figures presented at central fixation.

The case of gene susceptibility association with increased lung c

The case of gene susceptibility association with increased lung cancer frequency was used to demonstrate this methodology. Results of Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) iterations provided a more precise estimation find more of the regression coefficient in a logistic model with informative prior distribution compared to the noninformative

prior distribution model. In situations where similar historical data are available, it is proposed to include as much relevant information as previously published results in the analysis of current data.”
“The major aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between nitric oxide (NO) and generalized epilepsy. Mice lacking the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) gene (nNOS(-/-)) were used in this study to determine the relationship between nNOS a and NO in pentylentetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsions. nNOS(-/-) mice exhibited severe convulsions following injection with a subconvulsive dose of PTZ (40 mg/kg i.p.) and convulsive doses were lethal in all of the mice (60 mg/kg

i.p.) following tonic convulsions. The results were confirmed by using selective nNOS inhibitors in wild-type (nNOS(+/+)) mice. The higher doses of the nNOS inhibitors 1-[2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl] imidazole (TRIM) and 3-bromo-7-nitroindazole (3Br7NI) inhibited clonic-tonic convulsions induced by a convulsive dose of PTZ (60 mg/kg) in nNOS(+/+) mice. In contrast, either TRIM or 3Br7NI at lower doses enhanced convulsions following injection with a subconvulsive dose of PTZ

(40 mg/kg) in nNOS(+/+) mice similar to nNOS(-/-) mice treated with PTZ. Such a proconvulsant effect was observed in nNOS(+/+) Bortezomib mice pretreated with nNOS inhibitors but not other NOS inhibitors. These results indicate that NO may be regarded as an anticonvulsant or a proconvulsant substance in relation to convulsions induced by PTZ in mice. Pretreatment with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists (5S, 10R)-(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]-cyclohepten-5,10-imine Chlormezanone maleate (MK-801), (E)-(+/-)-2-amino-4-methyl-5-phospho no-3-pentenoic acid ethyl ester, CGP39551) and DL-alpha-amino3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor antagonist (2,3-dioxo-6-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrobenzo-[f]quinoxaline-7-sulfonamide, NBQX) inhibited a subconvulsive dose of PTZ-induced convulsions in nNOS(-/-) mice, demonstrating that convulsions induced by PTZ are modulated by endogenous NO production and ionotropic glutamate receptor-mediated stimulation. These results suggest a negative or positive modulation of neuronal interactions by basal or enhanced NO production, respectively. (C) 2009 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Studies on mutations and mutation frequencies of the MSH6 gene, which mainly focus on new types of mutations in small samples, have been published ever since the first report of MSH6 mutation in two atypical hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer patients. However, the results remain inconsistent.

Both VL and SOL underwent in BR decrements of similar to 15% in c

Both VL and SOL underwent in BR decrements of similar to 15% in cross-sectional area and of similar to 22% in maximal torque that were prevented by RVE. Myosin heavy chain distribution showed increased type I and decreased this website type IIA in BR both in VL and in SOL, the opposite with RVE. A substantial downregulation

of proteins involved in aerobic metabolism characterized both in SOL and VL in BR. RVE reversed the pattern more in VL than in SOL, whereas proteins involved in anaerobic glycolysis were upregulated. Proteins from the Z-disk region and from costamers were differently dysregulated during bed rest (both BR and RVE), particularly in VL.”
“Enhanced light sensitivity is a common feature of many neuro-ophthalmic conditions and some chronic headaches. Previously we reported that the bright light-evoked increases in trigeminal brainstem neural activity and lacrimation depended on a neurovascular link within the eye (Okamoto et al., 2012). However, the supraspinal pathways necessary for these light-evoked responses are not well defined. To assess the contribution of the posterior hypothalamic area (PH), a brain region closely associated with control of autonomic outflow, we injected bicuculline methiodide (BMI), a GABAa receptor antagonist, into the PH and determined its effect on the encoding

properties of ocular neurons at the ventrolateral trigeminal interpolaris/caudalis transition (Vi/Vc) and caudalis/upper cervical cord Depsipeptide junction (Vc/C1) regions and on reflex lacrimation in male rats under isoflurane anesthesia. BMI markedly reduced light-evoked (>80%) responses of Vi/Vc and Vc/C1 neurons at 10 min with partial recovery by 50 min after injection. BMI also reduced (>35%) the convergent cutaneous receptive field

area of Vi/Vc and Vc/C1 ocular neurons indicating that both intra-ocular and periorbital cutaneous inputs were affected by changes in PH outflow. Light-evoked lacrimation was reduced by >35% at 10 min after BMI, while resting mean arterial pressure increased promptly and remained elevated (>20 mmHg) throughout the 50-min post-injection period. These, Quinapyramine results suggested that PH stimulation, acting in part through increased sympathetic activity, significantly inhibited light- and facial skin-evoked activity of ocular neurons at the Vi/Vc and Vc/C1 region. These data provide further support for the hypothesis that autonomic outflow plays a critical role in mediating light-evoked trigeminal brainstem neural activity and reflex lacrimation. (C) 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: There are no current guidelines for diagnosing and managing mild prenatal hydronephrosis. Variations in physician approach make it difficult to analyze outcomes and establish optimal management.

Because ADO effects in standard solution occurred at doses that a

Because ADO effects in standard solution occurred at doses that are notably higher than those occurring in vivo, we hypothesize that newborn rat locomotor networks are rather insensitive to this selleck neuromodulator. (C) 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background Moderate differences in efficacy between adjuvant chemotherapy regimens for breast cancer are plausible, and could affect treatment choices. We sought any such differences.

Methods We undertook individual-patient-data meta-analyses of the randomised trials comparing: any taxane-plus-anthracycline-based regimen versus

the same, or more, non-taxane chemotherapy (n=44 000); one anthracycline-based regimen versus another (n=7000) or versus cyclo phosphamide, methotrexate,

and fluorouracil (CMF; n=18 000); and polychemotherapy Tozasertib versus no chemotherapy (n=32 000). The scheduled dosages of these three drugs and of the anthracyclines doxorubicin (A) and epirubicin (E) were used to define standard CMF, standard 4AC, and CAF and CEF. Log-rank breast cancer mortality rate ratios (RRs) are reported.

Findings In trials adding four separate cycles of a taxane to a fixed anthracycline-based control regimen, extending treatment duration, breast cancer mortality was reduced (RR 0.86, SE 0.04, two-sided significance [2p]=0.0005). In trials with four such extra cycles of a taxane counterbalanced in controls by extra cycles of other cytotoxic

drugs, roughly doubling non-taxane dosage, there was no significant difference (RR 0.94, SE 0.06, 2p=0.33). Trials with CMF-treated controls showed that standard 4AC and standard CMF were equivalent (RR 0.98, SE 0.05, 2p=0.67), but that anthracycline-based regimens with substantially higher cumulative dosage than standard 4AC (eg, CAF or CEF) were superior to standard CMF (RR 0.78, SE 0.06, 2p=0.0004). Trials versus no chemotherapy also suggested greater mortality reductions with CAF (RR 0.64, SE 0.09, 2p<0.0001) than with standard 4AC (RR 0.78, SE 0.09, 2p=0.01) or standard CMF (RR 0.76, SE 0.05, 2p<0.0001). In all meta-analyses involving taxane-based Dichloromethane dehalogenase or anthracycline-based regimens, proportional risk reductions were little affected by age, nodal status, tumour diameter or differentiation (moderate or poor; few were well differentiated), oestrogen receptor status, or tamoxifen use. Hence, largely independently of age (up to at least 70 years) or the tumour characteristics currently available to us for the patients selected to be in these trials, some taxane-plus-anthracycline-based or higher-cumulative-dosage anthracycline-based regimens (not requiring stem cells) reduced breast cancer mortality by, on average, about one-third. 10-year overall mortality differences paralleled breast cancer mortality differences, despite taxane, anthracycline, and other toxicities.

4 (19 7-23 2) The excess mortality among smokers (in comparison

4 (19.7-23.2). The excess mortality among smokers (in comparison with neversmokers) was mainly from diseases that, like lung cancer, can be caused by smoking. Among ex-smokers who had stopped permanently at ages 25-34 years or at ages 35-44 years, the respective relative risks were 1.05 (95% CI 1.00-1.11) and 1.20 (1.14-1.26) for all-cause mortality and 1.84 (1.45-2.34) and 3.34 (2.76-4.03) for lung cancer mortality. Thus, although some excess mortality remains among these long-term ex-smokers, it is only 3% and 10% of the excess mortality among continuing smokers. If combined with 2010 UK national death rates, tripled mortality rates among smokers indicate 53%

of smokers and 22% of never-smokers dying before age 80 years, and an 11-year lifespan difference.

Interpretation Among UK women, two-thirds find more PF299 of all deaths of smokers in their 50s, 60s, and 70s are caused by smoking; smokers lose at least 10 years of lifespan. Although the hazards of smoking until age 40 years and then stopping are substantial, the hazards of continuing are ten times greater. Stopping before age 40 years (and preferably well before age 40 years) avoids more than 90% of the excess mortality caused by continuing smoking; stopping before age 30 years avoids more than 97% of it.”
“Background: Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) has been intensely

researched in recent years, and its high diagnostic accuracy for myocardial ischemia has been demonstrated. However, its prognostic information is very limited.

Aim: We sought to assess the value of adenosine stress myocardial perfusion by CMR in predicting cardiac events in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD).

Design: Retrospective study.

Methods: From January 2003 to December 2008, we retrospectively reviewed consecutive patients with or without history of CAD referred for evaluation

of suspected myocardial ischemia who had undergone adenosine stress CMR in our hospital. End points were cardiac death or non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI).

Results: After a mean follow-up of 3.2 +/- 1.6 years in 203 patients, 15 (7.4%) second cardiac events occurred. The 4-year event-free survival was 96.2% for patients with normal stress CMR perfusion and 71.5% for those with abnormal stress CMR perfusion. Univariate analysis showed that both adenosine-induced reversible perfusion defect and delayed gadolinium enhancement by CMR were significant predictors of cardiac events [Hazard ratio (HR) 9.31; 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) 3.18-27.3; and HR 9.24; 95% CI 3.27-26.08; P < 0.001, respectively). By multivariate analysis, adenosine-induced reversible perfusion defect remained an independent predictor of cardiac events (HR 7.77; 95% CI 2.50-24.18; P < 0.001).

In this study, we report a method that allows detection and visua

In this study, we report a method that allows detection and visualization of the subcellular distribution of glutathione in Synechocystis sp. This method is based on immunogold cytochemistry with glutathione and cysteine antisera and computer-supported transmission

electron microscopy. Labeling of glutathione and cysteine was restricted to the cytosol and interthylakoidal spaces. Glutathione and cysteine could not be detected in carboxysomes, cyanophycin granules, cell walls, intrathylakoidal spaces, periplasm, and vacuoles. The accuracy of the glutathione Mdm2 antagonist and cysteine labeling is supported by two observations. First, preadsorption of the antiglutathione and anticysteine antisera with glutathione and cysteine, respectively, reduced the density of the gold particles to background levels. Second, labeling of glutathione and cysteine was strongly decreased by 98.5% and 100%, respectively, in Synechocystis sp. cells grown on media without sulfur. This study indicates a strong similarity of the subcellular distribution of glutathione and cysteine in cyanobacteria and plastids of plants and provides a deeper insight into glutathione metabolism in bacteria.”

Exercise therapy is a common intervention for the management of intermittent Selleck OSI-906 claudication (IC). However, considerable uncertainty remains about the effect of different exercise components such as intensity, duration, or content of the exercise programs. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of supervised walking therapy (SWT) as treatment in patients with IC and to update and identify the most important exercise components resulting in an optimal training protocol for patients with IC.

Methods: A systematic literature search using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases was performed. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published between January 1966 and February 2012 were included if they evaluated the effectiveness of SWT. Predefined exercise components were extracted,

including treadmill use during training, claudication RVX-208 pain end point used during walking, length of the SWT program, and total training volume. A meta-analysis and meta-regression was performed to evaluate the weighted mean difference in maximum walking distance (MWD) and pain-free walking distance (PFWD) between SWT and noninterventional observation.

Results: Twenty-five RCTs (1054 patients) comparing SWT vs noninterventional observation showed a weighted mean difference of 180 meters (95% confidence interval, 130-230 meters) in MWD and 128 meters (95% confidence interval, 92-165 meters) in PFWD, both in favor of the SWT group. In multivariable meta-regression analysis, none of the predefined exercise components were independently associated with significant improvements in MWD or PFWD.

Conclusions: SWT is effective in improving MWD and PFWD in patients with IC.

(C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved “
“Typical late e

(C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Typical late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins accumulate in response to water deficit imposed by the environment or by plant developmental programs. Because of their physicochemical properties, they can be considered as hydrophilins and as a paradigm of intrinsically unstructured proteins (IUPs) in plants. To study their biophysical and biochemical characteristics large quantities of highly purified protein are required. In this work, we report a fast and simple purification method for non-acidic recombinant LEA proteins that does not need the addition of tags and that preserves their in vitro protective activity. The

method is based on the enrichment of the protein of interest by boiling the bacterial protein extract, followed by a differential precipitation with trichloroacetic acid (TCA). Using find more this procedure we have obtained highly pure recombinant LEA proteins of groups 1, 3,

and 4 and one recombinant bacterial hydrophilin. Thiazovivin supplier This protocol will facilitate the purification of this type of IUPs, and could be particularly useful in proteomic projects/analyses. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The study of human crime and violence represents a flashpoint for discussion across academia. Multiple theories exist pertaining to the topic, all aimed at organizing numerous findings surrounding correlates of antisocial behavior. Along these lines, Moffitt’s developmental taxonomy Rutecarpine has emerged as a theory well supported by empirical research. Noticeably absent, though, has been an effort to apply an evolutionary framework to Moffitt’s dual taxonomy of offending. With this in mind, the current

study is intended to examine Moffitt’s different typologies in the context of Rushton’s Differential K theory (an adaptation of r-K selection from life history theory). Our findings suggest that life-course persistent offending may represent a viable reproductive strategy characterized by higher levels of sexual involvement over the life-course. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The L1 protein is a major component of prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines. Little effort has been made to improve the productivity of L1 protein by optimizing cell culture conditions although the high price of the vaccines is considered one of the factors limiting its widespread use. In biopharmaceutical manufacturing, strategies for optimizing culture conditions tend to focus on improvements in upstream processing rather than final yield because of the complexities of purification procedures. In this study, we investigated L1 protein productivity as a function of the composition of the carbon source and the point of cell harvesting in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae expression system.