Algae 2005,20(3):239–249 CrossRef 27 Kim GH, Klotchkova TA, West

Algae 2005,20(3):239–249.CrossRef 27. Kim GH, Klotchkova TA, West JA: From protoplasm to swarmer: regeneration of protoplasts from disintegrated cells of the multicellular marine green alga Microdictyon umbilicatum (Chlorophyta). J Phycol 2002,38(1):174–183.CrossRef 28. Klotchkova TA, Chah OK, West JA, Kim GH: Cytochemical and ultrastructural studies on protoplast formation from disintegrated cells of the marine alga Chaetomorpha aerea (Chlorophyta). Eur J Phycol 2003,38(3):205–216.CrossRef 29. Kim GH, Klochkova TA, Yoon KS, Song YS, Lee KP: Purification and characterization

of a lectin, Bryohealin, involved Fosbretabulin in vitro in the protplast formation of a marine green alga Bryopsis plumosa (Chlorophyta). J Phycol 2006,42(1):86–95.CrossRef 30. Yoon KS, Lee KP, Klochkova TA, Kim GH: Molecular characterization of the lectin, bryohealin, involved in protoplast regeneration of the marine alga Bryopsis plumosa (Chlorophyta). J Phycol 2008,44(1):103–112.CrossRef 31. Muller WE, Zahn RK, Kurelec B, Lucu C, Muller I, Uhlenbruck G: Lectin, a possible basis for symbiosis between

bacteria and sponges. J Bacteriol 1981,145(1):548–558.PubMed 32. De Hoff P, Brill L, Hirsch A: Plant lectins: the ties that bind in root symbiosis and plant defense. Mol Genet Genomics 2009,282(1):1–15.PubMedCrossRef check details Authors’ contributions JH designed the experiments, analysed the data and wrote the paper. FL maintained the algal cultures. JH and HD performed the experiments. FL, ODC and AW conceived the study and helped to draft the manuscript. All authors read and approved ID-8 the final manuscript.”
“Background

The integron includes a site-specific recombination system that integrates and expresses genes present on mobile elements called gene cassettes [1]. The integron platform is defined by three characteristics: an integrase gene (intI) whose product encodes a site-specific integrase, IntI, an attachment site (attI) at which point DNA sequences are PF-02341066 in vivo inserted and a promoter (Pc) which expresses genes within the gene cassettes inserted at attI [2]. Gene cassettes can be inserted into the integron as individual units but multiple events can lead to large tandem arrays. Integrons are best known for their role in the spread of antibiotic resistance genes in clinical environments [3]. These clinical integrons harbour 1-6 gene cassettes and are often associated with mobile elements such as resistance plasmids and transposons [3]. However, integrons are diverse genetic elements found in approximately 10% of environmental bacteria [2]. In these bacteria, integrons are found in chromosomal locations and rarely carry antibiotic resistance gene cassettes indicating a general role in evolution. Vibrio is a genus of highly adaptable bacteria found in diverse marine-associated niches [4].

05) Yes A distinction was made between studies with good and mode

05) Yes A distinction was made between studies with good and moderate quality ? not reported/unknown Performance-based tests and work participation Thirteen out of the 18 studies used a so-called functional capacity Daporinad solubility dmso evaluation (FCE): nine studies used the Workwell System (formerly Isernhagen Work Systems), one used the BT Work Simulator, one the ErgoKit, one the Dictionary of Occupational Titles residual FCE, and one the Physical Work Performance Evaluation (Table 2). In five of these thirteen studies, a limited number of tests of the total FCE were used. The other five studies used tests or combinations of like a step test, a lift test, or a trunk strength tester. Two

studies combined the results of the performance-based test with non-performance-based outcomes like

MK1775 pain and Waddell signs (Bachmann et al. 2003; Kool et al. 2002). Four of the five good-quality studies (80%) reported that a better result on a performance-based measure was predictive of work participation: one study on return to work and three studies on suspension of benefits and claim closure (Table 2). Three of these good-quality studies found no effect on sustained return to work. One good-quality study found no effect on work participation in terms of sustained return to work. All thirteen studies (100%) of moderate quality reported that performance-based measures were predictive of work participation: seven studies in terms of being employed, or (sustainable) return to work, four studies on being unemployed or non-return to work, and two studies on days to benefit suspension or claim closure. Discussion Methodological considerations Selection bias and publication bias are two concerns worthy of attention when performing a systematic review. To overcome selection bias, we used five sources of information: two databases, the American Medical Association Guide to the Sinomenine Evaluation of Functional Ability (Genovese and Galper 2009), references of the included papers, and relevant papers

suggested by the authors. The sensitivity of our search strategy for the databases was supported by the fact that checking the references of the included studies for other potentially relevant papers resulted in only one extra study. Moreover, the authors, who have published several papers on performance-based measures, could not add other studies. Regarding publication bias, this review found three studies (Gross and Battié 2004, 2005, 2006) that reported that performance-based measures of the Workwell System were not predictive of sustained return to work in patients with chronic low back pain and with upper extremity disorders. SB203580 cell line However, more studies from the same performance-based measures (Workwell System) and in similar and different patient populations reported also on a significant predictive value for work participation in terms of return to work (Matheson et al. 2002; Vowles et al. 2004, Streibelt et al. 2009) and in terms of temporary disability suspension and claim closure (Gross et al.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 87:731–741CrossRefPubMed 75 Nakajima A, Shi

J Bone Joint Surg Am 87:731–741CrossRefPubMed 75. Nakajima A, Shimoji N, Shiomi K, Shimizu S, Moriya H, Einhorn TA, Yamazaki M (2002) Mechanisms for the enhancement of fracture healing in rats treated with intermittent

low-dose human parathyroid hormone (1–34). J Bone Miner Res 17:2038–2047CrossRefPubMed 76. Andreassen TT, Ejersted C, Oxlund H (1999) Intermittent parathyroid hormone (1–34) treatment increases callus formation and mechanical strength of healing rat fractures. J Bone Miner Res 14:960–968CrossRefPubMed 77. Li YF, Luo E, Feng G, Zhu SS, Li JH, Hu J (2009) Systemic treatment with strontium ranelate promotes tibial fracture healing in ovariectomized rats. Osteoporos Int. doi:10.​1007/​s00198-009-1140-6 www.selleckchem.com/products/byl719.html 78. AZD5153 nmr Habermann B, Kafchitsas

K, Olender G, Augat P, Kurth A (2010) Strontium ranelate enhances callus strength more than PTH 1–34 in an osteoporotic rat model of fracture healing. Calcif Tissue Int 86:82–89CrossRefPubMed 79. Goldhahn J, Little D, Mitchell P et al (2010) Evidence for anti-osteoporosis therapy in acute fracture situations – recommendations of a multidisciplinary workshop of the international society for fracture repair. Bone 46:267–271CrossRefPubMed 80. Giangregorio L, Papaioannou A, Cranney A, Zytaruk QNZ mw N, Adachi JD (2006) Fragility fractures and the osteoporosis care gap: an international phenomenon. Semin Arthritis Rheum 35:293–305CrossRefPubMed 81. Cramer JA, Gold DT, Silverman SL, Lewiecki EM (2007) A systematic review of persistence and compliance with bisphosphonates for osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int 18:1023–1031CrossRefPubMed 82. Bolland MJ, Grey AB, Gamble GD, Reid IR (2010) Effect

of osteoporosis treatment on mortality: a meta-analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95:1174–1181CrossRefPubMed 83. Khosla S, Amin S, Orwoll E (2008) Osteoporosis in men. Endocr Rev 29:441–464CrossRefPubMed 84. Neuman MD, Archan S, Karlawish JH, Schwartz JS, Fleisher LA (2009) The relationship between short-term mortality and quality of care for hip fracture: a meta-analysis of clinical pathways for hip fracture. Am Geriatr Soc 57(11):2046–2054CrossRef 85. Bruyere O, Brandi ML, Burlet N, Harvey N, Lyritis G, Minne H, Boonen S, Reginster JY, Rizzoli R, Akesson K (2008) Post-fracture management of patients Florfenicol with hip fracture: a perspective. Curr Med Res Opin 24(10):2841–2851CrossRefPubMed 86. Fried LP, Tangen CM, Walston J et al (2001) Cardiovascular health study collaborative research group. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 56:M146–M156PubMed 87. Moayyeri A (2008) The association between physical activity and osteoporotic fractures: a review of the evidence and implications for future research. Ann Epidemiol 18(11):827–835CrossRefPubMed 88. Li F, Harmer P, Fisher KJ et al (2005) Tai Chi and fall reductions in older adults: a randomized controlled trial.

2 %) and 342 ITS3/4-OTUs (94 0 %) were minor with frequencies low

2 %) and 342 ITS3/4-OTUs (94.0 %) were minor with frequencies lower than 0.2 %, a frequency equivalent to 1 detection from 500 clones, reflecting the power of deep sequencing (Mardis 2008). Primer preference undoubtedly biases estimations of the species composition in a community (Bellemain et al. 2010). In this

study, up to one third of the OTUs detected using the mtLSU were assigned to bacteria, likely from the low specificity of the primers for fungi (Table 2). The mtLSU primers were designed for conserved regions of the large subunit buy LY2874455 rDNA of the mitochondrion, which share high similarities with bacterial ribosomal components (Kanagawa 2003). Likewise, the low efficiency

of the nrLSU-LR barcode in detecting fungal species may also have resulted from low primer specificity, as shown by the fact that ~80 % of the reads were assigned to plants instead of fungi. Even so, the nrLSU-LR was useful for identifying 17 unique genera (Table S4). Another extreme was with the mtATP6 amplification, that yielded all of the reads belonging to the Basidiomycota, 95.5 % of which were assigned to Ceratobasidium, a mycorrhizal selleck products genus associated with orchids (Irwin et al. 2007). On the other hand, 83.8 % of the mtATP6 OTUs representing 0.7 % of the reads remained unidentified likely due to insufficient information of mtATP6 sequences. All of these facts revealed high inconsistency across barcodes. Apparently, using one or few barcodes likely increases the risks of misidentifying the species composition in a microbial community, although nrITS is one of the best barcodes for fungal species discrimination (GSK126 ic50 Schoch et al. 2012). Using multiple barcodes is therefore necessary and has been strongly recommended (Nilsson et al. 2008; Gazis et al. 2011). Among the barcodes utilized in this study, ITS1/2, ITS3/4, and nrLSU-U were the most competent in uncovering the diversity of the fungal community

in Phalaenopsis roots (Fig. 1), while mitochondrial markers (mtLSU and mtATP6) yielded a low alpha diversity with rarely detected genera (Tables 3 MTMR9 and 4). Species composition and ecological roles of constituent fungi within orchid roots Orchid roots represent an ecosystem that fosters a high diversity of microbial species. Noticeably, genetic barcodes identified different floristic compositions at the class level (Fig. 2) and different common species from the same root community (Table S4). For example, for various barcodes, the most common species (with percentage reads) were as follows: ITS1/2, Alternaria sp. (up to 30.4 %); ITS3/4, Penicillium sp. (37.8 %); nrLSU-LR, Trechispora farinacea (48.9 %); nrLSU-U, Trechispora sp. (39.2 %); mtLSU, Serpula sp. (64.7 %).

At the same time diffusion and flow have to be discriminated The

At the same time diffusion and flow have to be discriminated. These goals can best be obtained by the use of pulsed magnetic field gradient (PFG) techniques (for some background, see Van

As and Windt 2008). In this experiment, a sequence of two magnetic field gradient pulses of duration δ and equal magnitude G but opposite sign (or equal sign but separated by an 180 rf pulse) label the protons as a function of their position. If the spins remain at exactly the same position #selleck inhibitor randurls[1|1|,|CHEM1|]# the effect of the gradient pulses compensate each other. However, as soon as translation (displacement) motion occurs, the gradients do not exactly compensate each other anymore, resulting in https://www.selleckchem.com/products/AZD6244.html attenuation of the signal amplitude. The amount of this attenuation is determined by the length and amplitude of the gradient pulses, and by the mean translation distance traveled during the interval Δ between the two gradient pulses. In order to be able to discern flowing water from randomly diffusing water, Δ is typically varied from 15 ms for fast flowing xylem water, to 200 ms for slow moving phloem water (Scheenen et al. 2001). Linear displacement can be measured by stepping G of the pulsed field gradients –G max to +G max, as described previously by Scheenen et al. (2000a). After Fourier transformation of the signal

as a function of G, the complete distribution of displacements (i.e., flow profile) within Δ in the direction of the gradient is obtained for every pixel of an image. Such a displacement distribution is called a propagator. Making use of the fact that non-flowing (only diffusion) water results in a propagator that is symmetrical around zero, the signal in the non-flow direction can be mirrored around the displacement axis and subtracted from the signal in the flow direction to produce the flow profile of the flowing as well as the stationary water. The resulting flow profiles can then be used to see more calculate per pixel or in any selected area in

an image: the flow conducting area, the average velocity of the flowing water, and by taking the integral of the propagator of the flowing water, the volume flow (cf Fig. 3). Fig. 3 Example of combined water content (MSE) in one of the storage pools and flow measurements (PFG-TSE) in the stem of a 4 years old oak during a developing drought period, followed by rewatering (indicated by the line). Water content of the bark as (represented by the relative amplitude, the fraction of signal intensity with respect to that of pure water, averaged over all pixels in the mask of the bark as highlighted in the inserted image of the stem), the flow conducting area and volume flow in the active xylem (the xylem ring just inside the bark and the cambial zone).

This technique has recently been used by other authors [8] to pre

This technique has recently been used by other authors [8] to prepare tips in situ for low-temperature STM. In this paper, we show experimental results of the JC and JOC phenomena for gold that are analyzed simultaneously. We study the most

probable configurations before the formation and breaking of nanocontacts with pyramidal form obtained from MD simulations emulating the process of mechanical annealing. As found earlier [5], the contacts can be classified into monomer, dimer and double contact. In order to correlate with the experimentally obtained conductance values, we calculated the conductance of these structures using first-principles quantum transport models. Methods We have used an STM, where the tip and sample were two gold electrodes with 99.999% purity. The experiments were done at 4.2 K and cryogenic vacuum atmosphere. In order

to Transmembrane Transporters inhibitor obtain the conductance of Fedratinib nmr the contacts, the electrical current was measured while applying a 100-mV constant bias voltage between the gold structures. Figure 1A shows traces of conductance in a gold nanocontact, measured in units of G 0 during the process of formation (red) and rupture (green). Insets show some Quisinostat cell line snapshots from our molecular dynamics simulations. These correspond to the initial structure (top figure) and the final structures before breaking (bottom right) and just after contact formation (bottom left). Figure 1B is a zoomed area around 1G 0 of Figure 1A, where the phenomena of JC and JOC can be clearly observed. In order to quantify the jump occurring in these two processes, we define

two conductance values for JC (G a , G b ) and two values for JOC (G c , G d ). These values correspond to the conductance values before and after the jump. click here We have performed thousands of indentations and recorded the values of these points. Representing G b vs G a for the JC case and G d vs G c for JOC, we can obtain a colour density plot as shown in Figure 1C for JC and in Figure 1D for JOC. Lighter colours are less probable values than darker colours. Figure 1 How to build a density plot. (A) On the top left-hand side, we show a typical trace of conductance of gold at 4 K during the process of breaking (red) and forming (green) a contact. (B) The top right-hand side is a zoom near 1G 0 to define the values before and after the JC, G a and G b , and JOC, G c and G d . (C, D) The bottom figures show colour density plots where dark colours represent those values of conductance that appear more frequently (left for JC and right for JOC). To emulate the movement of the STM and simulate the tip and surface that are annealed mechanically, we used MD simulations with embedded atom potentials. Density function theory (DFT)-based calculations are performed to obtain the electronic transport in the simulated structures [9].

Although there are a lot of factors contributing to one’s locus o

Although there are a lot of factors contributing to one’s locus of control, some researchers AG-120 research buy suggest that women tend to be more external than men (De Man et al. 1985). In other words, women are more likely to gear their Mocetinostat datasheet values and actions according to the societal norms and expectations. Given that all of the participants in this

study were females, it’s impossible to say if gender was a factor, however, future research could incorporate both locus of control and gender as factors to better understand the acculturation process of international students. In addition, our findings indicated that change, rather than being an all-or-nothing process, involves a lot of gray area and a gradual progression. Some of the participants reported being accepting of certain issues with one big exception: when it doesn’t involve them. One could speculate that change was a gradual process for some of the participants where they embraced values of the host culture to the extent that it didn’t involve them, and that they will eventually be more accepting of them in time. Or it could be that, for these participants, this is the extent of the change they are going to experience vis-à-vis the values of the host

culture. Moreover, individual background characteristics also can explain why some of the participants experienced Savolitinib order more change than others. Given that the current study is a qualitative study, we Idoxuridine cannot make generalizations, however, we here present some of the patterns we have observed in understanding the change experienced by the participants. First, students who had non-Turkish partners consistently experienced more change compared to those who were currently not dating or had Turkish or Middle Eastern partners. More specifically, these participants expressed becoming more accepting of various issues that generally are considered taboo, such as premarital sex and homosexuality, in their home country. Similarly, we also observed that those who were in ethnically homogamous relationships reported more ‘no change’ themes. This connection also can be attributed

to the individual characteristics of those participants (i.e., language skills, personality) who decided to date outside of their ethnicity. Whether it is the individualistic characteristics leading to it or inter-ethnic dating alone, we cannot establish a cause and effect in understanding the change regarding romantic relationships. Second, we observed that in the current study the length of time spent in the US was related to how much or how little change participants experienced. Most of the participants who had experienced change had been living in the host country for over 3 years. This is congruent with the acculturation literature, which suggests that time is one of the best predictors in understanding the amount of change experienced by immigrants (Bornstein and Cote 2006).

For example,

Kuzumaki et al [15] measured these values f

For example,

Kuzumaki et al. [15] measured these values for pure Al samples and for those with 2.5 and 5 wt.% of CNT loadings, before and after annealing the samples over 50 and 100 h at 873 K. The tensile strength values of 90 MPa for untreated Al samples, and 45 MPa and 40 MPa for these after selleck compound consecutive annealing, and unchanged values of 80 MPa (either before or after heat treatments) for the samples with CNTs were reported. Salas et al. [16] documented only 20 MPa strength for Al samples with 5 wt.% of CNTs. Therefore, the figures obtained in our work markedly prevail over literature data for Al-CNT composites at approximately the same or even lower loading fractions of reinforcing BNNTs. Figure 4a shows a SEM image taken from a starting Al-BNNT 3 wt.% pellet before melt casting. Individual (not bundled) BNNTs are seen randomly distributed within the pellet (as arrowed). The typical tube length reaches approximately 5 μm. Figure 4b Rapamycin nmr depicts a SEM image of the same sample after melt casting and FIB treatment.

Figure 4 Structural characterization of samples. (a) SEM image of Al-BNNT (3 wt.%) composite pellet before melt casting. (b) A morphology formed in the melt cast ribbon; the inset in (b) is an optical image of the cast ribbon after polishing and etching; this reveals an approximately PLX3397 1.5- to 3-μm Al grain size. (c, d) Representative fracture surfaces of the tensile-tested sample (3 wt.% BNNT) at various magnifications; individual BNNTs are seen at those surfaces (arrowed); thus they, CYTH4 at least partially, carry the applied tensile load and participated in the deformation process. A framed area shows a tube presumably broken into two halves under tension; this area is specially enlarged in the upper-right inset. The BNNT network is clearly seen at the edge of the Al matrix. Many nanotubes protrude out of the polished Al phase, creating a sort of internal microframe. The inset

to this figure displays an optical image of the same ribbon after polishing and chemical etching of its surface. Most of the Al grains after melt spinning are very fine, around only 2 to 3 μm in size. Figure 4c, d shows SEM images of the fractured surfaces of a Al-BNNT 3 wt.% ribbon after the tensile test. Some BNNTs embedded in the Al matrix are seen at that surface (arrowed), which is an indication of their contribution to carrying a tensile load. The ribbon casting rate can hardly be controlled using the present experimental setup. It is determined by the specific melting conditions inside the inductor of the melt-spinning equipment, which sometimes may vary. Perfect texturing/orientation of BNNTs within the melt-spun ribbons is difficult to achieve, and the tubes are mostly randomly oriented within the ribbons, having only a sort of quasi-alignment along the casting direction.

Therefore, we

Therefore, we conclude by this study that genetic relatedness and pathogenecity in S. pseudopneumoniae in comparison to viridans group was well revealed by transcriptome analysis. Methods Bacterial culture, RNA extraction and

cDNA synthesis S. pneumoniae KCTC 5080T was used as the reference strain for comparative microarray Akt inhibitor experiments with other viridians group of streptococci. S. pneumoniae KCTC 5080T, S. pseudopneumoniae CCUG 49455T, S. mitis KCTC 3556T, and S. oralis KCTC 13048T strains were grown on Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) agar (Difco, Detroit, MI, U.S.A.) at 37°C for 18 hours. Total RNA was isolated using a RiboPure Bacteria Kit (Ambion, UK) following manufacturer’s instructions. Extracted RNA was treated with TURBO DNase (Ambion). RNA quality was checked for purity and integrity as evaluated by OD 260/280 ratio, and analyzed on Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer (Agilent Technologies, Palo Alto, USA). cDNA was synthesized according to the selleck screening library Nimblegen Expression protocol (Nimblegen, Madison, USA) using the SuperScript double-stranded cDNA synthesis kit (Invitrogen Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA, U.S.A.). Briefly, 10 μg of total RNA was reverse-transcribed to cDNA using an oligo dT primer. Then second-strand cDNA was synthesized. After purification,

cDNA was quantified using the ND-1000 Spectrophotometer (NanoDrop, Wilmington, USA). Labeling and purification cDNA was labelled using the One-Color Labelling Kit (Nimblegen) following manufacturer’s instructions. 1 μg of cDNA samples were Selleckchem Navitoclax labelled with Cy3 using Cy3-random nonamer. After purification, the labelled cDNA was quantified using the ND-1000 Spectrophotometer (NanoDrop). Generation of microarray data The Streptococcus Phospholipase D1 pneumoniae R6 microarrays (Nimblegen)

were used for the transcriptome analysis. The S. pneumoniae R6 microarray contains 2,037 genes: 4 × 72,000 probes and 5 replicates (GenBank accession numbers: NC_003098). Labelled cDNA samples of S. pseudopneumoniae S. mitis and S. oralis were hybridized onto Nimblegen Expression array (Nimblegen) for 16-20 hours at 42°C, according to manufacturer’s instructions. Arrays were scanned with a NimbleGen MS 200 Microarray scanner set- at 532 nm with a resolution of 2 μm to produce images in TIFF format according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Array data export processing and analysis was performed using NimbleScan (version 2.5). The data discussed in this publication have been deposited in NCBI’s Gene Expression Omnibus [34] and are accessible through GEO Series accession number GSE37539 (http://​www.​ncbi.​nlm.​nih.​gov/​geo/​query/​acc.​cgi?​acc=​GSE37539). Data acquisition and statistical analysis Raw data was extracted using NimbleScan (version 2.5, Gene Expression RMA algorithm). A single raw intensity value was determined for each gene in each array with 2535 genes by taking an average of spot replicates of all 24 probes.

A

value of P < 0 05 was considered to be significant Ack

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value of P < 0.05 was considered to be significant. Acknowledgements We are thankful to Professors S.K. Bhattacharya and S. Roy, past and present directors of IICB, Kolkata, for supporting this work. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support from CSIR and DST, Government of India. Thanks are due to Mr. Janmenjoy Midya for assisting in animal studies. References 1. Desjeux P: Leishmaniasis: current situation and new perspectives. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2004, 27:305–318.PubMedCrossRef 2. Chappuis F, Sundar S, Hailu A, Ghalib H, Rijal S, Peeling RW, Alvar J, Boelaert M: Visceral leishmaniasis: what are the needs for diagnosis, treatment and control? Nat Rev Microbiol 2007, 5:873–882.PubMedCrossRef 3. Bhowmick S, Ali N: Recent developments 3-Methyladenine in vivo in leishmaniasis vaccine delivery systems. Expert Opin Drug Deliv 2008, 5:789–803.PubMedCrossRef 4. Heldwein KA, Liang MD, Andresen TK, Thomas KE, Marty AM, Cuesta N, Vogel SN, Fenton MJ: TLR2 and TLR4 serve distinct roles in the host immune response against Mycobacterium bovis BCG. J Leukoc Biol 2003, 74:277–286.PubMedCrossRef 5. von Meyenn F, Schaefer M, Weighardt H, Bauer S, Kirschning CJ, Wagner H, Sparwasser T: Toll-like receptor 9 contributes selleck chemical to recognition of Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin

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S, Coler RN, Friede M: New horizons in adjuvants for vaccine development. Trends Immunol 2009, 30:23–32.PubMedCrossRef 11. Chikh GG, Kong S, Bally MB, Meunier JC, Schutze Redelmeier MP: Efficient delivery of Antennapedia homeodomain fused to CTL epitope with liposomes into dendritic cells results in the activation of CD8 + T cells. J Immunol 2001, 167:6462–6470.PubMed 12. Nakanishi T, 4SC-202 mouse Kunisawa J, Hayashi A, Tsutsumi Y, Kubo K, Nakagawa S, Nakanishi M, Tanaka K, Mayumi T: Positively charged liposome functions as an efficient immunoadjuvant in inducing cell-mediated immune response to soluble proteins. J Control Release 1999, 61:233–240.PubMedCrossRef 13. Rao M, Alving CR: Delivery of lipids and liposomal proteins to the cytoplasm and Golgi of antigen-presenting cells. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2000, 41:171–188.PubMedCrossRef 14.