88)) per visit compared to non-rotavirus outpatient visits (INR 1

88)) per visit compared to non-rotavirus outpatient visits (INR 1787 (USD 29.74)) MI-773 ic50 [10]. A national rotavirus vaccination program would

be cost-effective in India although given the heterogeneity of rotavirus disease burden across geographic and socioeconomic subgroups, its impact and cost-effectiveness will not be uniform. One study found that a rotavirus vaccination program would prevent 35,000 deaths nationally at an average cost of USD 118 (INR 7081) per DALY averted [18]. Reductions geographic and socioeconomic disparities could prevent an additional 9400 deaths. In poorer states with high mortality, the primary justification for vaccine introduction would be the potential reduction in diarrhea mortality whereas in inhibitors wealthier states with lower

mortality, the primary benefit would be averted costs [18]. A second cost effectiveness study using the IndiaSim model also examined the cost-effectiveness of a national rotavirus vaccination taking into account the geographic variability of health and wealth. In this study, three scenarios were examined including INCB024360 chemical structure one where rotavirus vaccine was introduced at the routine coverage levels of the other routine vaccines, a second where coverage was increased to 90% randomly across the population, and a third where targeted rural and urban regions with coverage below 90% at baseline were targeted [19]. In all three scenarios, rotavirus vaccines were cost saving but the impact of vaccination was greatest under scenario 3. Rotavirus vaccine introduction averted 21.2 deaths and $248,203

(INR 14.9 million) in out-of-pocket costs per 100,000 children <5 years of age under scenario 1 and deaths and cost averted increased under the other two scenarios. The reduced burden was highest for the poor and in rural areas. Following its introduction into the US, a first generation rotavirus vaccine was found to have an increased risk of intussusception of ∼1 excess case of intussusception for every 10,000 children vaccinated and was subsequently withdrawn from the market less than one year after its introduction [20]. For the two second generation vaccines that are currently available no internationally, large safety studies were conducted as part of the clinical trials and found no increased risk of intussusception within 31 or 42 days of vaccination [21] and [22]. However, continued post-marketing surveillance has detected a small increased risk of 1–5 cases of intussusception per 100,000 children vaccinated mainly within the first week following the first dose [23], [24], [25], [26], [27], [28] and [29]. While there was no association with intussusception was observed in the clinical trial of 116E vaccine [1], post-marketing monitoring of intussusception with this and other Indian-manufactured rotavirus vaccines is important, especially within specified risk windows.

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