“Dopamine is a critical modulator of prefrontal cortical function, and it is known to be dysfunctional in schizophrenia. Current hypotheses on schizophrenia highlight developmental aspects and genetic predisposition for the disease; yet, symptom onset typically occurs during adolescence. Several aspects of prefrontal cortical circuits and their modulation by dopamine mature postnatally, as late as during adolescence. Here we review studies assessing the postnatal trajectory of dopamine control of GABA
interneurons, a neuronal population that has been long suspected to be critical for schizophrenia pathophysiology. Dopamine modulation of fast-spiking interneurons changes dramatically during adolescence (postnatal day 45-50 in rats) with D2 agonists switching from being Torin 1 chemical structure mildly inhibitory in prepubertal rats to strongly excitatory in young adult rats. In vivo recordings in adult rats reveal that deep-layer pyramidal neurons respond to endogenous DA release with suppression of firing while interneurons are activated. In adult rats with a neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion (NVHL), an extensively studied developmental
model of schizophrenia, the maturation in the D2 modulation of interneuron physiology fails to occur, LGX818 rendering a disinhibited prefrontal cortex. Abnormal interneuron maturation may therefore impair cognitive function in the adult animal.”
“Most evidence on the motives-alcohol use link has come from cross-sectional research using retrospective assessments. It remains also to be demonstrated whether motives predict drinking in particular circumstances. In the present study, drinking motives assessed 2 weeks prior to a diary study were used to predict the number of drinks on weekend days as reported via short message service (SMS). Multi-level regression models were estimated based on 391 reports from 55 participants (mean age 22.7). The results revealed that enhancement motives but not gender, age, or social, coping, or conformity motives predicted weekend drinking over and
above usual consumption. Consumption and motives together explained more than three-quarters of the inter-individual variance in weekend drinking. To conclude, this study points to a heavy episodic weekend drinking culture of young people who 3 Methyladenine drink large quantities on Friday and Saturday nights apparently because they are seeking fun and excitement. Preventive measures should aim to counteract young people’s drinking at peak times and in high-risk situations. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“We present briefly 2 newborns with Pasteurella multocida meningitis following incidental household exposure to domestic pets and review 36 additional cases from the literature. Of 38 reported cases of P. multocida meningitis during infancy, 18 were less than or equal to I month of age. All but one of the infants less than I month of age had documented exposure to household dogs and/or cats, most only incidentally.