“Boron aluminum hydride clusters are studied through a synergetic combination of anion photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory based calculations. Boron aluminum hydride cluster anions, BxAlyHz-, were generated in a pulsed arc cluster ionization source and identified by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. After mass selection, their photoelectron spectra were measured by a magnetic bottle-type electron energy analyzer. The resultant photoelectron spectra as well as calculations on a selected series of stoichiometries reveal significant geometrical changes upon substitution
of aluminum atoms by boron atoms. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.”
“Given learn more the high failure rates and the increased costs of Phase III trials in oncology and the recent explosion of targeted agents, researchers are looking for better design strategies to try and optimise the use of available patients and financial resources. In this context, adaptive designs are seen as promising tools.\n\nWe reviewed the different possible adaptations in the design of a clinical trial on the basis of the FDA guidance and summarized these. The pro and
cons of adaptive designs are highlighted with a focus on one of the more ‘controversial’ adaptive designs, the sample size reassessment based on interim-effect size as proposed by Mehta and Pocock.\n\nWhile group sequential designs are preferable to such adaptive designs, both are difficult to implement in the case of rapid accrual and long time to event.\n\nAdaptive designs may have some potential in less favourable situations. However, the increase in overall power should CA4P solubility dmso be carefully weighted as well as the risk of a large negative trial. Adaptive designs need good, sometimes extensive, logistics. Some adaptive designs (e. g. group sequential designs) proved to be very useful and are already a part of the standard repertoire of trial designs used at European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Autophagy Compound Library solubility dmso (EORTC). Adaptive designs need strong measures to prevent bias that could otherwise
become uncontrollable, particularly if interim results are leaked. This includes a prospective planning of adaptations.\n\nFinally, these studies currently have the potential to induce a heavy workload and cost linked to their regulatory management. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“In men, the penile urethra is a primary infection site for sexually transmitted pathogens. Research on the immunology of this mucosal site has been limited in part due to sampling challenges, but available evidence indicates that the urethra contains a rich contingent of immunological mediators that can mount vigorous innate and adaptive immune responses against infectious organisms. Further research is needed to define approaches to stimulate immunity at this mucosal site to prevent the transmission of HIV-1 and other sexually transmitted pathogens. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.