Methods: We used Caco-2 monolayers grown on culture inserts a

\n\nMethods: We used Caco-2 monolayers grown on culture inserts as an in vitro model of intestinal permeability and performed Western blotting, permeability, and siRNA inhibition studies to Pevonedistat order examine the role of Clock and Per2 circadian genes in alcohol-induced hyperpermeability. We also measured PER2 protein levels in intestinal mucosa of alcohol-fed rats with intestinal hyperpermeability.\n\nResults: Alcohol, as low as 0.2%, induced time dependent increases in both Caco-2 cell monolayer permeability and in CLOCK and PER2 proteins. SiRNA specific inhibition

of either Clock or Per2 significantly inhibited alcohol-induced monolayer hyperpermeability. Alcohol-fed rats with increased total gut permeability, assessed by urinary sucralose, see more also

had significantly higher levels of PER2 protein in their duodenum and proximal colon than control rats.\n\nConclusions: Our studies: (i) demonstrate a novel mechanism for alcohol-induced intestinal hyperpermeability through stimulation of intestinal circadian clock gene expression, and (ii) provide direct evidence for a central role of circadian genes in regulation of intestinal permeability.”
“Histidine-tag (His-tag) is the most frequently used tag to label and purify recombinant protein kinases, namely autokinases. However, when analyzing protein phosphorylation, it appears that this modification occurs not AZD8186 inhibitor only on the kinase itself but also on several serine residues present

in the vector-derived His-tag sequence, These parasite modifications can thus lead to misinterpretation of the data concerning protein phosphorylation. We report here on a modified vector devoid of serine residues in the tag and, therefore, more appropriate and secure for studying protein phosphorylation. (c) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Halisphingosines A (1) and B (2), modified long-chain sphingoid bases, from the marine sponge Haliclona tubifera collected in Brazil, were characterized after conversion to their N-Boc derivatives. The 2R,3R,6R configuration of halisphingosine A, a compound first reported from Haliclona sp. from South Korea, was confirmed using a novel CD approach: deconvolution of exciton coupling from mono- and trinaphthoyl derivatives obtained by derivatization of the natural product. The sensitive CD deconvolution method, applicable to submilligram samples, simultaneously predicted the relative and absolute configuration of three stereocenters in halisphingosine A with precision and accuracy. Halisphingosine B was assigned by correlation to halisphingosine A.”
“The double-stranded DNA genomes of herpesviruses, exist in at least three alternative global chromatin states characterised by distinct nucleosome content.

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