Further well-designed prospective trials are warranted to fully determine the long-term effectiveness and safety of this combination as well as its place in therapy.”
“Amniotic membrane (AM), the innermost layer of the fetal membranes, has been widely employed in the surgical
reconstruction and tissue engineering. Expression of the antimicrobial peptides such as defensins, elafin and SLPI which are essential elements of the innate immune system results in antibacterial properties of the AM. Preservation is necessary to reach a ready-to-use source of the AM. However, these methods might change the properties of the AM. The aim of this study was to evaluate antibacterial properties of the AM after preservation.
β-Nicotinamide Antibacterial property of the fresh AM was compared with cryopreserved and freeze-dried AM by modified disk diffusion method. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and two clinical isolated strains of E. coil were cultured in Mueller Hinton MAPK inhibitor agar and a piece of the AM was placed on agar surface. After 24 h incubation, the inhibition zone was measured. In addition, one of the most important antibacterial peptides, elafin, was measured by ELISA assay before and after preservations procedures. Antibacterial properties of the AM were maintained after cryopreservation and freeze-drying. However, the inhibition zone was depending on the bacterial strains. The cryopreservation and freeze-drying procedures significantly decreased elafin which shows that antibacterial property is not limited to the effects of amniotic cells and the other components such as extracellular matrix may contribute in antibacterial effects. The promising results of this study show that the preserved AM is a proper substitute of the fresh AM to be employed in clinical situations. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Some questions are answered
concerning the origins of the Three Rs (Replacement, Reduction, Refinement) concept in relation to animal experimentation, expounded 50 years ago by Russell and Burch in The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique, by reference to some key publications and to correspondence Staurosporine in the W.M.S. and Claire Russell Archive, which is currently being established at the University of Nottingham. Some insight is also given into the relationship between Russell and Burch, the first use of “alternatives” in the Three Rs context, and the background to the publication of the book.”
“Purpose of reviewUnderstanding nasal form and function is critical in performing successful cosmetic rhinoplasty. Careful evaluation of the patient’s nasal airway with identification of areas of existing or potential obstruction is important in avoiding potential pitfalls that may compromise nasal function following rhinoplasty.