NS1 is also inserted into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum

NS1 is also inserted into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum via a signal peptide that is cleaved cotranslationally by a cellular signalase to generate the mature N High Content Screening terminus of the protein [7]. Within infected cells, NS1 is believed to function as a cofactor in viral RNA replication, and specific amino acids substitutions in NS1 can attenuate viral RNA accumulation [8].In vivo, highly

circulating levels of the Dengue virus (DENV) NS1 early in Dengue illness correlated with the development of Dengue hemorrhagic fever and other severely associated diseases [9]. The diagnosis of WNV and associated diseases has long been a challenge, especially Belnacasan cell line in the field of differential diagnosis. Assays employing reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) are able to differentiate closely

related viruses, but these assays can only be applied to specimens containing circulating virus or viral RNA. Serological tests for WNV infections mainly include the neutralization test, the hemagglutination-inhibiting test, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the immunofluorescence assay (IFA) [10]. Among these tests, the neutralization test is recognized as the “”gold standard”" and provides the highest specificity. However, neutralization assay requires paired acute- and convalescent-phase serum specimens, and involves manipulation of live virus which requires a high level of biocontainment. The use of the IFA as a diagnostic tool is also limited by practical issues related to biosafety. The ELISA has also been used to detect immunoglobulin

Selumetinib datasheet M (IgM) antibodies that specifically react with WNV antigens. However, these tests may be confounded by the potential cross-reactivity of antibodies with other members of the JEV serocomplex Rucaparib purchase or other flaviviruses [[11–13]], especially in regions where several flaviviruses coexist [14]. In 1995, Hall et al developed an assay in which antibodies against immunodominant epitopes in NS1 of MVEV and Kunjin viruses were used to define targets for a blocking ELISA. This assay was used to detect virus-specific antibodies in sentinel animal sera, and confirmed that NS1 could be used as a target protein to differentiate viruses in the JEV serocomplex [15]. In a recent study, an epitope-blocking ELISA based on a WNV NS1-specific mAb was established and used to differentiate WNV from JEV infections in horses and to detect natural infections among vaccinated populations [[16–19]]. Phage display describes an in vitro selection technique in which a peptide or protein is genetically fused to a coat protein of a bacteriophage, resulting in displaying of the fused peptide or protein on the exterior of the phage virion. Phage display library can consist of either a random peptide library or a gene-targeted library, and thus provides a powerful and economic technique for epitope identification.

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