Nur77 plays a key role at all levels of the hypothalamus-pituitar

Nur77 plays a key role at all levels of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis during the stress response.

However, the participation of Nur77 in extra-hypothalamic responses to stress is unknown. In this study, we studied the impact of acute and repeated immobilization stress on Nur77 expression in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST), a region involved in autonomic, neuroendocrine, and behavioral responses to stress. After a single session of immobilization stress we observed a significant increase of Nur77-like immunoreactivity Compound C in the BNST. This effect is not lost with repeated exposure to stress, since Nur77-like immunoreactivity and Nur77 mRNA in BNST were increased after the fifteenth stress session. The administration of desipramine, a specific inhibitor of noradrenaline reuptake, prevented the increase in Nur77-like immunoreactivity and mRNA induced by stress in rats subjected to repeated exposure to immobilization stress. Our results show that acute and repeated stress modulates Nur77 expression in BNST and suggest that Nur77 participates in extra-hypothalamic responses to stress.”
“The Wisconsin beta-catenin pathway Inventory of Smoking Dependence

Motives (WISDM) assesses 13 domains of smoking motivation emphasized by diverse theoretical perspectives. Emerging findings support a distinction between four primary dependence motives (PDM) indexing core features of tobacco dependence and nine secondary dependence motives (SDM) indexing accessory features. The current study explored the validity of this distinction using data from two samples (Ns = 50 and BIIB057 mouse 88) of college smokers who self-monitored their reasons for smoking with electronic diaries. PDM scores were associated with diary endorsement of habitual or automatic motives for smoking individual cigarettes, which are conceptually consistent with the content of the PDM subscales. SDM did not clearly predict conceptually related self-monitored motives

when tested alone. However, when these two correlated scale composites were co-entered, PDM predicted being a daily vs. nondaily smoker, being higher in nicotine dependence, and smoking individual cigarettes because of habit or automaticity. Conversely, after PDM-SDM co-entry, the unique variance in the SDM composite predicted the tendency to report smoking individual cigarettes for situational or instrumental motives (e.g., to control negative affect). The results suggest that the PDM composite may reflect core motivational features of nicotine dependence in these young smokers. The relative prominence of primary motives in advanced or dependent use may be even clearer when motives for smoking are assessed in real time rather than reported via questionnaire. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The positions of nucleosomes in eukaryotic genomes determine which parts of the DNA sequence are readily accessible for regulatory proteins and which are not.

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