Studies have indicated that MLVA is sufficient to resolve closely

Studies have indicated that MLVA is sufficient to resolve closely related selleck screening library isolates. In contrast, combining loci with lower variability values is suitable for establishing clear phylogenetic patterns among strains that have evolved over a longer time period. Theoretically, the greater the number of loci used, the higher the discriminatory power that can be achieved, and subtler phylogenetic relationships among bacterial strains can be

established. At the present time, the MLVA was established and applied to examine the clonal relationships between H. FG-4592 solubility dmso pylori isolates from China and Japan. The loci used in this study provided high discriminatory power and successfully separated isolates of different strains from different geographical areas. And there was a particularly evident of H. pylori from Tibet, a relatively

closed region, which Elafibranor purchase showed better cluster than other ethnic groups. The data will aid in the development of a genomic polymorphism database of H. pylori. We have established a preliminary profile of MLVA but more information is required for a comprehensive profile. China is a large country containing 56 ethnic groups and a large population. Therefore, further studies are required including isolates from more regions and over several more time-frames. Conclusions The studies indicated that MLVA method, based on 12 VNTR loci, is sufficient to resolve closely related isolates for the purpose of H. pylori genotyping analysis. This study used MLVA methodology provided a new perspective on the ethnic groups distribution characteristics of H. pylori. Methods H. pylori strains and DNA preparation A total of Atorvastatin 202 H. pylori strains were included in this study and the background information of the strains is listed in Table 3. The 187 clinical strains were isolated from various regions of China during 1998 and 2010; an additional 15 strains were presented as a gift by Institute of Medical Science

University of Tokyo Japan in 2008. Patients ranged from 12 to 75 years old (mean age 44 years). All the patients reporting the symptoms of gastritis (G), peptic ulcer (PU) or gastric cancer (GC) underwent upper gastroendoscopy for both visual examination and biopsy collection. The strains were isolated from gastric biopsy gastrointestinal endoscopy of selected patients, who had not received non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, proton pump inhibitors or other antibiotics during the last 2 months, revealed that out of 202 patients, 172 had either G, DU or GC and 30 had non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD). Written consent was taken from all the patients before collection of the biopsy. The study was approved by the ethics review board at Third Military Medical University, and informed consent was obtained from all patients before participation. Table 3 Background information of the 202 H. pylori clinical strains City Region Ethnic group Isolated year No.

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