77 Toward an integrative model of depression: therapeutic implica

77 Toward an integrative model of depression: therapeutic implications Major depression is believed to be a multifactorial disorder including predisposing temperament and personality traits, exposure to traumatic and stressful life events, and biological susceptibility. Depression, both unipolar and bipolar, is characterized Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical by recurrence

of mood episodes, and consequently may be seen as a “phasic” disease. Stressful life events that involve loss, threat, humiliation, or defeat are known to trigger depressive episodes, while their influence seem to decrease over the course of the illness.78,79 This has suggested that depression is associated with progressive stress response abnormalities possibly linked to impairments of structural plasticity and cellular resilience.80

We will review the kindling hypothesis and the HPA axis hypothesis of depression, and will describe a recent Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical theory of the pathogenesis of depressive illness, namely neuro plasticity. Furthermore, another promising area of Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical research in depression, resynchronization of circadian rhythms and its therapeutic implications will be briefly commented on. The kindling hypothesis The primary conceptual framework to some of the phenomena of illness initiation and Dolutegravir progression is the “kindling“ hypothesis,81,82 inspired by temporal and developmental similarities between the clinical course of affective disorders and that of seizure disorders. Kindling is a form of sensitization Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of the brain tissue (eg, limbic and other subcortical areas) leading to functional and structural alteration, including the induction of gene transcription factors such as c-fos. Induction of c-fos leads to neurochemical changes at neurotransmitter and receptor levels. The kindling model proposes that certain types of stressors, repetitively experienced in a predisposed individual, will lead to mood symptoms of

increasing intensity and duration until a full-blown depressive (or manic episode) occurs. This model may explain Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical some of the key aspects of depression: (Figure 1) (i) the first lifetime episodes are more strongly associated with major life stress than are successive recurrences; (ii) the severity and duration ADP ribosylation factor of the nontreated episodes increase with clinical course (the corollary of this is a possible treatment resistance); and (iii) the interval between episodes decreases with the duration of the illness. This hypothesis has nevertheless its limitations, although has recently regained some interest.83 Figure 1. Major depression is a multifactorial disorder including predisposing temperament and personality traits, exposure to traumatic and stressful life events and biological susceptibility The kindling/sensitization hypothesis may explain some of the key aspects …

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