Vegetative symptoms are closely associated with these vital dist

Vegetative symptoms are closely associated with these vital disturbances and coenesthesias in depression. Disturbances of sleep, appetite, and digestion are most frequent. However, there may be many

other vegetative symptoms in depression such as disordered salivation, transpiration and lacrimation, cardiac arrhythmias and dyspnea, loss of libido and various sexual dysfunctions, dys- or amen? orrhea, loss of or increase in body weight, decreased turgor of the skin, loss of hair, decrease in body temperature, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical nausea, vomiting, meteorism, dizziness, sweating, or sensations of coldness. Both vital disturbances, coenesthesias and vegetative symptoms, are typically coexistent with the well-known affective, behavioral, and cognitive symptoms of depression. With respect to the different settings of medical care, however, these psychological symptoms of depression may be masked by a dominant reporting of somatic symptoms. M. Bleuler addressed the point in his book Depressions Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in Primary Care, in 1943: “It is a common and frequent observation that depressive patients with single somatic complaints come to the consulting room of the general practitioner, internal specialist, and even the surgeon, gynecologist, ophthalmologist, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical urologist and other medical

specialists, and spontaneously, they only speak of somatic phenomena while concealing their Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical state of depressive mood. They report palpitations, tightness of the chest, loss of appetite, obstipation, pollakiuria, amenorrhea and many others. Only when one looks at their psychic state does one discover that they report numerous hypochondriac ideas also in other areas, that in addition they

produce depressive ideas of impoverishment and sin, that beyond that their whole stream of thoughts is inhibited, that the depression manifests itself not only in the somatic complaints reported, but in various other Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical bodily expressions.”5 In spite Cytidine deaminase of this long-standing psychopathological view on the somatic foundation of depressive mood, at least in moderate and severe clinical states, it is bewildering that the official psychiatric classification systems of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) and the ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioral Disorders. Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic guidelines (ICD-10) only marginally appreciate somatic symptoms as diagnostic criteria for depressive Selleckchem CX 5461 Disorders while focussing on the psychological symptoms of affect and cognition. So, DSM-IV lists only three criteria of somatic symptoms for major depressive disorder: sleep disturbance, appetite disturbance, and fatigue or loss of energy.

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