Side-by-side comparison

of SmaI and Cfr9I PFGE profiles y

Side-by-side comparison

of SmaI and Cfr9I PFGE profiles yielded identical banding patterns consistent with unequivocal comparability of both restriction patterns. Reproducibility of the method was confirmed with 5 NT SmaI -MRSA isolates which were re-analyzed 3 times and yielded identical banding patterns. Genetic diversity of NTSmaI -MRSA All PFGE patterns of Trichostatin A solubility dmso the NT SmaI -MRSA were compared with a database consisting of more than 4000 isolates containing over 700 Alvocidib supplier different PFGE types obtained with SmaI digestion. Surprisingly, newly-obtained banding patterns of NT SmaI -MRSA isolates did not match with any known PFGE cluster in the national database of MRSA isolates collected since 2002. Thirty t011 isolates revealed 16 different PFGE patterns (figure 1). The largest PFGE cluster consisted of 5 isolates, and 5 patterns were found more than once (n = 19). No correlation was found between PFGE cluster

and geographic location. The minimal similarity (Dice coefficient, represented by UPGMA, 0.5% optimization and 1.0% tolerance) between the different patterns was 64% (data not shown). Thirty t108 isolates revealed 14 different PFGE selleck inhibitor patterns (figure 1). The largest cluster contained 12 isolates and 4 patterns were found more than once (n = 20). The clusters showed no geographical correlation. The minimal similarity of the t108 isolates was 50% (data not shown). One t108 isolate yielded a very distinct PFGE pattern (figure 1, pattern H). Without this isolate the minimal similarity of the t108 isolates would be 80%. The minimal similarity of the 60 NT SmaI -MRSA isolates was 35%, but most isolates share 80% or more similarity (figure 1). SCCmec typing of the 60 NT SmaI -MRSA isolates

showed SCCmec type IV (n = 14) and SCCmec type V (n= 43). Three isolates yielded a variant Palmatine of SCCmec type V (indicated in figure 1 with V*) and no SCCmec types I, II or III were found (figure 1). Figure 1 Dendrogram of the Cfr 9I PFGE results of NT Sma -MRSA isolates with the 2 most prevalent spa -types in the Netherlands. Transmission of ST398 isolates The results of Cfr9I PFGE of 8 pairs of veterinarians and one of their close family members showed that 5 pairs gave indistinguishable banding patterns suggesting possible transmission of ST398 (figure 2 shows 2 pairs of indistinguishable banding patterns). Two pairs that did not match also had different spa-types (figure 2). One pair which had the same spa-type differed in a single PFGE band (data not shown). Six isolates belonging to an outbreak in a residential care facility with spa-types t2383 and t011 all shared the same banding pattern (figure 2). Furthermore, the transmission between pigs, pig farmers and their family on 9 different pig farms (table 1, figure 2) was studied. Farms 1 to 5 shared the same spa-type whereas on farms 6 to 9, two or more different spa-types were present.

Yet despite these events, hibernator bile did not differ from sum

Yet despite these events, hibernator bile did not differ from summer squirrel bile in several key characteristics find more such as [bile acids], [cholesterol], [free fatty acids], [lecithin], and osmolality. One

major distinction between summer and winter squirrels was that winter squirrels experience >5 fold increases in [bilirubin]. Such an increase may have significant physiological consequences that could aid in survivorship of torpor. Of note was that animals that failed to hibernate, despite being anorexic, were very similar to summer squirrels in all measured parameters except they had lower bile acid and lecithin concentrations. Our results highlight the need to further elucidate ASP2215 nmr cholesterol metabolism during hibernation as well as understand the role of gallbladder contractility in determining bile constituents. Methods Adult golden-mantled ground squirrels (Spermophilus lateralis) were captured during the summer from Southern Nevada and California. Some animals were trapped and killed immediately as a seasonal control (summer active, SA). The remaining squirrels were implanted in October with temperature sensitive radiotelemeters as described previously in order to

allow for precise determination of torpor status [33]. Following recovery from surgery, implanted squirrels were housed in an environmental chamber Selleck AG-881 at 4°C and allowed to hibernate. The body temperature of torpid squirrels was ~5°C. In some cases, torpor

status was tracked through surface temperatures using an infrared thermometer. All animals were killed by CO2 asphyxiation except for the torpid animals. Torpid animals were killed by decapitation because of their low respiratory rates. The entire content of the gallbladder was collected to avoid stratification and the bile was snap frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80°C until use. Bile was obtained from animals killed in the summer (SA), animals killed while torpid (T), and animals killed when euthermic between torpor bouts (interbout-aroused; IBA). An additional group of winter squirrels that failed to hibernate was included (deemed abnormal, AB). We note that these AB animals were implanted with telemeters at PTK6 the same time (October), housed under the same conditions (4°C for more than two months), and sampled at the same time of year (~February) as the other winter squirrels. Animals received humane care according to the criteria outlined in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, Washington, D.C., USA). To assess for color variation, bile was photographed. Spectral analyses were also performed by diluting 1 μl of bile in 1 ml of water and scanning with a Shimadzu PharmaSpec Spectrophotometer (Shimadzu Scientific Instruments, Columbia, Maryland, USA) from 260 to 700 nm wavelengths at 0.5 nm resolution. Bile acids were measured using a colorimetric assay.

While class I hydrophobin aggregates are extremely stable, and ca

While class I hydrophobin aggregates are extremely stable, and can be dissociated only in trifluoroacetic acid and formic acid, class II hydrophobin aggregates can be solubilised in Vistusertib research buy hot sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) or 60% ethanol [2]. Hydrophobins have been shown to serve several basic functions in fungi. By covering hyphal walls with a hydrophobic surface layer, they allow hyphae to escape from aqueous substrates and to develop aerial mycelia [1]. Similarly, conidia are often covered with rodlet layers, which facilitate their dispersal by air or water droplets. Loss of the hydrophobin layers by targeted

mutagenesis of hydrophobin genes can lead to drastic reduction in surface hydrophobicity, resulting in ‘easily wettable’ phenotypes [2]. In the rice pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae mutants in the class I hydrophobin Mpg1 produced easily wettable conidia and hyphae lacking rodlets, and were defective

in appressorium formation and host infection. This was attributed to the inability of the germ tubes to firmly attach to the hydrophobic plant cuticle and to appropriately sense surface features leading to appressorium differentiation [4, 5]. In the same fungus, the class II hydrophobin Mhp1 was also found to be involved in hyphal surface hydrophobicity and for pathogenesis [6]. The tree pathogen Ophiostoma ulmi produces cerato-ulmin, a class II hydrophobin which is a wilt-inducing toxin. Ricolinostat Regarding its role in pathogenesis, a final conclusion has not yet been reached. While toxin-deficient mutants were not affected in pathogenicity, Etomidate their phenotypes indicated that it contributes to the fitness of the spores of O. ulmi [7, 8]. Similarly, hydrophobin mutations in the tomato pathogen Cladosporium fulvum did not impair the mutant strains to cause disease [9]. Botrytis cinerea (teleomorph Botryotinia fuckeliana) is a necrotrophic plant pathogenic ascomycete with a wide host range,

including economically important fruits, vegetables and ornamental flowers. After colonisation of the host tissue, the fungus forms aerial mycelia that produce large numbers of conidia, which are the main source of new infections. Due to their surface hydrophobicity, conidia adhere easily to the plant surface [10]. This initial adhesion is relatively weak and followed by stronger attachment immediately after emergence of the germ tube [11]. Germ tubes secrete an ensheathing film that appears to mediate adhesion to hydrophobic and hydrophilic substrates. The biochemical composition of the film has been analysed, and was found to consist mainly of carbohydrates and proteins, plus minor amounts of lipids [12]. Germination of B. cinerea conidia has been found to depend both on the availability of nutrients and on physical surface properties. In solutions containing sugars as sole organic nutrients, efficient germination occurs only on a hard surface. In the absence of nutrients, germination can still be induced on hard, hydrophobic surfaces [13].

It can be seen that the growth at the high

It can be seen that the growth at the high deposition rate of 0.5 ML/min (Figure 4a) produced a large number of short NWs and small 3D islands. The number ratio of NWs to 3D islands is

1:2.3. The average length of the NWs and the average size of the 3D islands are about 126 nm and approximately 17 nm, respectively. At the high deposition rate, the find more Mn atoms have a short mean free path on the Si(110) surface and easily bind together or bind with the Si atoms to form the critical nuclei, leading to a high nucleation density. With decreasing Mn deposition rate, the number density of the NWs and 3D islands decreases significantly due to the low nucleation density. However, the average length of the NWs and the size of the 3D islands increase Lazertinib datasheet greatly. For example, at the low deposition rate of 0.02 ML/min (Figure 4d), the average length of the NWs and the size of the 3D islands are about 519 and 46 nm, respectively.

Meanwhile, the number ratio of NWs to 3D islands is also increased Osimertinib solubility dmso to 1:1.3, indicating that a low deposition rate can restrain the nucleation of 3D islands and favor the formation of NWs. Compared to the high deposition rate, the increase in NW length and island size at the low deposition rate can be attributed to the longer growth time because the amount of deposited Mn is the same (1 ML). Figure 4 STM images showing the influence of Mn deposition rate on the growth of NWs. Series of STM images (1,000 × 1,000 nm2) of the manganese silicide NWs and islands grown on the Si(110) surfaces at various depositing rates. (a) Approximately Telomerase 0.02, (b) 0.05, (c) 0.2, and (d) 0.5 ML/min. The growth temperature and the Mn coverage were kept at 550°C

and 1 ML, respectively. Table 1 Average dimensions and number density of the NWs and 3D islands grown at different deposition rates Deposition rate (ML/min) Length of NWs (nm) Width of NWs (nm) Height of NWs (nm) Density of NWs (number/μm2) Size of 3D islands (nm) Height of 3D islands (nm) Density of 3D islands (number/μm2) 0.5 126.3 13.3 2.2 42 17.0 4.1 98 0.2 208.9 14.3 2.4 26 19.9 4.9 56 0.05 347.9 16.1 3.0 15 29.8 6.9 20 0.02 519.0 16.9 5.0 9 46.4 8.9 12 The growth temperature and Mn coverage for each deposition were kept at 550°C and 1 ML, respectively. Figure 5 is a series of STM images showing the influence of deposition time (i.e., Mn coverage) on the growth of NWs, with the temperature and deposition rate kept at 550°C and 0.2 ML/min, respectively. The statistical results of the dimensions and number density of the NWs as well as the 3D islands are listed in Table 2. It can be seen that in the short-duration range (e.g., 5 and 10 min), the NWs formed on the surface are almost uniform in width and height, and the 3D islands are almost uniform in size, as shown by Figure 5a,b.

Higher pressures load the ultrasound tool too much, and the ultra

Higher pressures load the ultrasound tool too much, and the ultrasonic generator begins its inevitable falling out of resonance and its power decreases. A liquid denser than water (ethylene glycol, glycerol, etc.) also leads to a higher output power, thanks to a higher cavitation threshold. When the liquid is exposed to intense ultrasound, the waves propagate

through the liquid causing an alternating of high-pressure and low-pressure cycles that is dependent on the frequency of the electric generator. During the low-pressure cycle, high-intensity RAD001 small vacuum bubbles are created, as the liquid vapor pressure is achieved. When the bubbles reach a certain size, they collapse strongly during a high-pressure cycle. During this implosion, very high pressures, high temperatures, and speed liquid jets are locally generated. This phenomenon is called

cavitation [23]. The resulting hydrodynamic GKT137831 forces are able to disintegrate agglomerates and to mill particles in solution. The ultrasonic vibrations are transferred into an elastic RO4929097 chemical structure environment by spreading the longitudinal or transverse waves. Transverse waves cannot propagate in a gas or a liquid because there is no mechanism for driving the motion perpendicular to the propagation of the wave; thus, they are transformed into standing (stationary) waves by the ultrasonic horn. Stationary waves are able to vibrate lamellar particles, using the vibration to overcome van der Waals forces. As a result, lamellar particles are gradually peeled off to reveal individual sheets. The particle milling effect is based

on intense ultrasonic cavitation, while delamination is caused by stationary waves. Increasing the density of the solvent or/and increasing the pressure of the solvent will also increase the cavitation threshold [24, 25]. Through the selection of suitable reaction conditions and factors (sonotrode shape, intensity of ultrasound, solvent density, pressure, etc.), it is then possible to favor the process of delamination over grinding and milling. Delamination of layered minerals [26] by ultrasound was successfully used for the preparation of exfoliated mica Niclosamide [27] and kaoline [28] under atmospheric pressure. Pressurized batch ultrasonic reactors were also used to exfoliate graphite to graphene [29], which then served as the precursor for the composite materials of graphene-anatase [30] and graphene oxide-anatase [31]. It can then be theorized that the exfoliation of IAGs using power ultrasound in an environment of strong polar aprotic solvents in a pressurized batch reactor could be achieved through this procedure. In this paper, we demonstrate simple and low-cost methods for the preparation of single- and few-layered nanosheets of inorganic analogues of graphene, MoS2, WS2, h-BN, h-BCN, and g-C3N4, using stationary ultrasound waves in a pressurized ultrasonic reactor.

In addition prolonged fixation in formalin caused a signal reduct

In addition prolonged fixation in formalin caused a signal selleck kinase inhibitor reduction for K-7, but did not affect routine HE and reticulin staining. The difference is most likely due to changes in epitopes required for immunohistochemistry,

but less for routine HE and reticulin staining. Selleckchem TSA HDAC Indications for possible overfixation by formalin were present in K-7 and possibly in MRP2 staining. Signal reduction in K-7 stained biopsies was associated with increased fixation time and was also present in the periphery of wedge biopsies (24 hrs and 5 days fixation). In both situations, prolonged exposure to formalin could explain epitope masking due to protein cross linking of the tissues antigens. Consequently, this antigen masking could result in decreased antigen-antibody reactivity. Occurrence and intensity of this effect will vary per antibody as not all epitopes will be affected similarly [18]. Immunohistochemical reactivity was optimal after formalin fixation and replacement of the formalin by ethanol 70% within 1 – 4 hrs. Formalin fixation Selleck GNS-1480 proved necessary for assessment of copper accumulation in liver tissue. Routine rubeanic acid staining was sufficient in a wedge biopsy (24 hrs) as well as in a Menghini

biopsy (8 hrs). Reliable rhodanine staining was limited to a wedge biopsy only. RNAlater or Boonfix treated slides did not produce a sufficient signal in any of the investigated copper stains. Interestingly, previous exposure to

HCl damp in rubeanic acid staining, as was suggested to enhance copper staining [18], completely inhibited the signal in all slides and therefore proved to be ineffective. Conclusion Summarized, in the search to decrease the number of biopsies needed for molecular and (immuno)histochemical analysis, it turned out that at least two biopsies (10% neutral buffered formalin and RNAlater) are needed. Since both biopsies can be dispersed in relatively non-toxic liquid preservatives, this combination can easily provide researchers with material for GBA3 high throughput expression analysis. Moreover it nicely resembles the sample preparation protocols that are commonly used in clinics today. Since biopsies fixed in either RNAlater or formalin remain stable at room temperature, transport is easy from the clinical situation to the research facility for further processing as well as prolonged storage. Results of our study showed that a reduction of the formalin fixation time to 1 to 4 hrs will generally reduce formalin induced reduced staining and staining artifacts. Therefore, any extension of the formalin fixation period should be discouraged when immunohistochemistry is considered. In view of the large similarities between human and canine liver diseases [19], it is conceivable that the protocols described here can be easily translated into the human biomedical field.

coli K38 and JS7131 Exponentially growing E coli K38 cells (pan

coli K38 and JS7131. Exponentially growing E. coli K38 cells (panel A) and JS7131 (panel B), respectively, containing the plasmid pMSg9-T7 were pulse-labelled with 35S-methionine for 10 min. The cells were converted to spheroplasts and incubated on ice for 1 h either in the presence or absence of 0.5 mg/mL proteinase K. The samples were immunoprecipitated with antiserum to T7 (lanes 1, 2), to GroEL (lanes 3, 4) and to OmpA (lanes 5, 6), respectively, and analysed on SDS PAGE and phosphorimaging.

(C) The depletion of YidC in the JS7131 cells grown in M9 medium with 0.2% glucose (glc) was verified by Western blot using an antibody to YidC. As control for the non-depleted conditions, the JS7131 cells were grown in the presence of 0.2% arabinose (ara). The insertion of gp9-T7 into the membrane was then investigated in E. coli JS7131. In these cells, the membrane insertase YidC can be depleted when the selleck screening library cells are grown in the presence of glucose [4]. After 2 h growth under glucose conditions the cells were pulse-labelled with 35S-methionine for 10 min and converted to spheroplasts. The protease mapping (Figure 5B) shows Raf inhibitor that the YidC depleted cells did not allow the digestion of the T7-epitope at the N-terminus of gp9 (lane 2). These results suggest that the membrane insertion

of gp9-T7 is YidC-dependent. In both cases, the integrity of the spheroplasts was verified by the protection of GroEL (lane 4) and the proteolytic activity was corroborated by the accessibility of the OmpA protein (lane 6). Assembly of gp9 variant proteins onto phage Assembly of the plasmid-encoded variants onto phage was Flavopiridol (Alvocidib) first followed by dot-blot analysis of phage particles. M13am9 infections in E. coli K38 bearing a plasmid coding for one

of the gp9 variants were performed and the progeny phage were collected and titrated. Equal amounts of phage was applied on nitrocellulose, incubated with antiserum to M13 gp8, to T7 tag or to the HA tag, respectively. The reaction with a secondary peroxidase coupled antibody was analysed by chemoluminescence (Figure 6). Whereas the infecting M13am9 phage reacted only to the anti gp8 serum (panel A), the phage grown in cells with pMS-g9-T7 clearly reacted with the T7 serum (panel B). Similarly, phage from cells expressing the double tag gp9-DT7 also reacted with the serum to the T7 tag. Strong signals were obtained with gp9 proteins with the HA epitopes (panel C) whereas the uninfected K38 cells expressing gp9-T7 or gp9-HA showed only a low signal in the corresponding supernatants. This verifies that the plasmid encoded gp9 proteins with the epitope tags were efficiently assembled onto the phage particles. Figure 6 Presentation of the antigenic tags on gp9 of phage particles. (A) M13 phage (panel A) was applied onto nitrocellulose membrane and incubated with antibody to gp8, T7 tag and HA tag, respectively, at the indicated find more concentrations.

(2001) Soil Ecology Springer Lepš J, Šmilauer P (2003) Multivari

(2001) Soil Ecology. Springer Lepš J, Šmilauer P (2003) Multivariate analysis of ecological data using CANOCO. doi: http://​dx.​doi.​org/​10.​1017/​CBO9780511615146​ Malmer A, Grip H (1990) Soil disturbance and loss of infiltrability caused by mechanized and manual extraction of tropical

rainforest in Sabah, Malaysia. For Ecol Manage 38:1–12CrossRef Maschwitz U, Schönegge P (1983) Forage communication, nest moving recruitment, and prey specialization in the oriental ponerine Leptogenys chinensis. Oecologia 57:175–182CrossRef McMorrow J, Talip MA (2001) Decline of forest area in Sabah, Malaysia: relationship to state policies, land code and land capability. Glob Environ Chang 11:217–230CrossRef Mill AE (1984) Predation LY2835219 mw by the ponerine ant Pachycondyla commutata on termites of the genus Syntermes in buy Evofosfamide Amazonian rain forest. J Nat Hist 18:405–410. doi:10.​1080/​0022293840077034​1 CrossRef Mustafa N-ZA, Salim

HMW, Fletcher C et al (2011) Taxonomic and functional diversity of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in an upper hill dipterocarp forest in Peninsular Malaysia. Raffles Bulletin Zool 59:181–194 Myers N, Mittermeier RA, Mittermeier CG et al (2000) Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403:853–858PubMedCrossRef Naeem S, Thompson LJ, Lawler SP et al (1994) Declining biodiversity can alter the performance of ecosystems. Nature 368:734–737CrossRef Nichols E, Larsen T, Spector S et al (2007) Global dung beetle response to tropical forest modification and fragmentation: a quantitative literature review and meta-analysis. Biol Conserv 137:1–19. doi:10.​1016/​j.​biocon.​2007.​01.​023 CrossRef Nye P, Greenland D (1964) Changes in the soil after clearing tropical forest. Plant Soil 21:101–112CrossRef Palace M, Keller M, Asner GP et al (2007) Necromass in undisturbed and logged forests in the Brazilian Amazon. For Ecol Manage 238:309–318. doi:10.​1016/​j.​foreco.​2006.​10.​026 CrossRef Peh KSH, Sodhi NS, De Jong J et al (2006) Conservation value of degraded habitats for forest birds in southern Peninsular Malaysia. Divers Distrib 12:572–581. doi:10.​1111/​j.​1366-9516.​2006.​00257.​x

CrossRef Ryder Wilkie KT, Mertl AL, Traniello JFA (2010) Species diversity Fenbendazole and distribution patterns of the ants of Amazonian Ecuador. PLoS ONE 5:e13146. doi:10.​1371/​buy JNK-IN-8 journal.​pone.​0013146 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef So WY, Chu LM (2010) Ant assemblages on rehabilitated tropical landfills. Biodivers Conserv 19:3685–3697. doi:10.​1007/​s10531-010-9922-x CrossRef Sodhi NS, Koh LP, Brook BW, Ng PKL (2004) Southeast Asian biodiversity: an impending disaster. Trends Ecol Evol 19:654–660. doi:10.​1016/​j.​tree.​2004.​09.​006 PubMedCrossRef Sodhi NS, Posa MRC, Lee TM et al (2009) The state and conservation of Southeast Asian biodiversity. Biodivers Conserv 19:317–328. doi:10.​1007/​s10531-009-9607-5 CrossRef Sokal R, Rohlf F (1995) The principles and practice of statistics in biological research, 3rd edn.

All testing was done with each subject at approximately the same

All testing was done with each subject at approximately the same time of day. Also, all Dehydrogenase inhibitor subjects were required to keep a daily workout log showing the exercises with reps and sets performed. Volume load (repetitions × weight) was measured to ensure subjects did not alter their training regimen. Statistical analysis Data were analyzed utilizing a 2-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with Tukey’s test used for post-hoc analysis. Data are expressed as mean ± SD. A p value of <0.05

was considered significant. Results Forty subjects were initially recruited for this investigation. Ten subjects dropped out. Of the 10, three stated an inability to consume the protein needed for the study and one subject complained of gastrointestinal distress. Six did not provide a reason. Thirty healthy resistance-trained individuals participated in this study (mean ± SD; age: Blasticidin S 24.1 ± 5.6 yr; height: 171.4 ± 8.8 cm; weight: 73.3 ± 11.5 kg; 11 female, 29 male). There were no differences between groups

for any of the baseline measures (Table 1). Table 1 Subject characteristics   Age years Height cm Weight kg Control n = 10 (2 female, 8 male) 22.0 ± 2.6 174.3 ± 8.2 76.4 ± 9.9 High Protein n = 20 (9 female, 11 male) 25.2 ± 6.3 170.0 ± 8.9 71.8 ± 12.2 Data are mean ± SD. There were no significant differences for any of the variables. cm centimeters, kg kilograms. There were no statistically before significant changes pre vs post AG-881 ic50 or between groups for any of the body composition variables (Table 2). Table 2 Body composition   Control HP Pre Post Change Pre Post Change BW (kg) 76.4 ± 9.9 77.2 ± 9.9 0.8 ± 1.6 71.8 ± 12.2 73.5 ± 12.5 1.7 ± 1.9 FFM (kg) 65.2 ± 11.7 66.5 ± 11.7 1.3 ± 2.0 59.5 ± 10.9 61.4 ± 11.6 1.9 ± 2.4 FM (kg) 11.2 ± 4.7 11.4 ± 5.0 0.3 ± 4.7 12.3 ± 7.0 12.0 ± 6.2 −0.2 ± 2.2 % BF 15.1 ± 6.9 14.2 ± 6.9 −0.9 ± 1.7 16.9 ± 8.3 16.3 ± 7.5 −0.6 ± 2.6 Data are mean ± SD. There were no significant differences for any of the variables. BW body weight, FFM fat free mass, FM fat mass,% BF percentage body fat, HP high protein. There were no

changes in training volume (Table 3). The dietary data are summarized in Table 4. There were no significant changes in the control group for any of the variables. There was a significant increase in total energy and protein intake in the high protein group. It should be noted that every subject in the high protein group consumed protein powder in order to meet the requirements for the study. Otherwise, it would be have virtually impossible or highly unlikely that one could consume a 4.4 g/kg/d via food alone. Table 3 Training volume   VL/day Pre Post Control 37148 ± 40979 41847 ± 49022 HP 32481 ± 34193 34601 ± 34604 Data are mean ± SD. There were no significant differences for any of the variables. HP high protein, VL volume load (calculated as reps × weight).

6 Toward the better program The objective of the RISS is not only

6 Toward the better program The objective of the RISS is not only to disseminate the concepts of sustainability science within the university, but also to challenge the institutional limitations to obtain constant cooperation from faculty members at Osaka University. As an attempt, we have carried out Ro 61-8048 mw informal interviews with faculty (both current and prospective instructors) and currently enrolled students: (1) to have them understand click here the RISS program and (2) to find

out what they think about us as well as sustainability science. We interviewed 12 key faculty members from the Schools of Engineering, Engineering Science, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Economics, and the Communication Design Center, and 21 students who were enrolled in our program between April and July 2008. While there are possibly sample selection biases in their opinions and suggestions, the feedback is still valuable and interesting in helping to improve the RISS program. From the interview with faculty, we found that most of them have a positive attitude towards the philosophy approaches of the RISS education program, although they have some negative opinions PND-1186 about sustainability science as an academic discipline. In particular, some faculty members pointed out that the

core courses merely deliver the collection of different ideas in different views unless a core concept of sustainability science is shared among instructors. The IR3S has reached a general consensus on sustainability core courses in that sustainability science programs should have courses that teach holistic knowledge about sustainability issues. Yet, there is a debate over what specifically to teach as an introduction to sustainability science. At the RISS, we are attempting to develop documented guidance for the core courses and share it with instructors and faculty. We also hold workshops and seminars to deliver Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II findings and knowledge in sustainability science and sustainability education to faculty and students. In this sense, the RISS program can be the platform for faculty members in which new research and educational topics can be discussed. From the students’

point of view, we found that, in general, students have strong interests in environmental issues, regardless of their academic backgrounds. Yet, we saw some differences depending on their academic backgrounds. Some students majoring in natural sciences and engineering tend to have a strong motivation to delve into their academic field in pursuing their master’s curriculum, while others show interests in social sciences, such as economics. On the other hand, students majoring in social and human sciences seem to have less interest in other academic fields, particularly technology and engineering. It is important to reduce any burden on students and to encourage them to participate in the RISS program. As the current program enrolment shows (Table 2), there are only four students in the program who are majoring in social and human sciences.