Because thin-slice real-time imaging can intersect anatomy in unfamiliar ways, 3-D visualizations that plot real-time images oriented relative to reference images can be helpful (Figure 7). A basic imaging Selleckchem Crenolanib interface for MR-guided EP procedures would provide a convenient way to “book-mark” and access reference cardiac views, switch between real-time and lesion visualization sequences during the procedure, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical appropriately present lesion images for ablation line continuity assessment, and display the relationship
of stored images, catheter position, and intracardiac electrogram characteristics in 3-D. Figure 7 Example of using automatic catheter highlighting and reference Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical image planes to navigate complex 3-D anatomy using real-time MRI. The anatomic location of the catheter position on the image labeled LAX2 is better appreciated when overlaid with long and … INTERVENTIONAL MRI DEVICE SAFETY The most important consideration for any new diagnostic or therapeutic approach is safety. While a number of studies have been performed to determine the safety of conventional MRI with regard to electromagnetic energy exposure and tissue heating, 84,85 interventional procedures add additional considerations and raise new safety concerns.86–89 The most straightforward aspect to MRI device safety is the avoidance of Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical ferromagnetic materials that could experience significant forces
when brought close to the scanner. Though MRI-unsafe Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical objects, such as ferromagnetic scissors and needle drivers, may be needed during the preparatory phase of a procedure, until MRI-compatible alternatives are available a system must be in place to methodically track and remove such objects before approaching the scanner. The electric current associated
with defibrillation can also lead to strong displacement forces in high magnetic Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical fields and should be performed with the defibrillator pads maintained a safe distance from the scanner bore.90 Similar attention is needed to address the ferromagnetic properties and MRI electromagnetic interference compatibility of other equipment associated with electrophysiology procedures including physiology monitoring equipment, ablation and pacing sources, and anesthesia apparatus. Clear marking of high-field areas and secure placement of objects that may experience magnetic forces is mandatory so that appropriate pieces of equipment Montelukast Sodium are kept at a safe distance.91 An additional safety concern particular to CMR-guided cardiovascular procedures is the significant heating that can result from RF transmission-induced current in extended metallic objects such as guide-wires, wired electrodes, and metal-braided catheters.87,88 This induction is more pronounced when portions of the device are located close to the RF transmit body coil housed within the edge of the scanner bore.