6A). In E-Btk-2 and EY-Btk-5 mice IgM serum levels were increased (Fig. 6B), consistent with the presence of increased numbers of IgM ASC in the long-lived compartment in the BM. The E-Btk-2 and EY-Btk-5 mice did not
show an increase in ASC of other subclasses (data not shown), and accordingly serum levels were either decreased or in the WT ranges (Fig. 6B). To investigate mature B-cell functionality, we analyzed the immune response to the T-cell independent type II (TI-II) antigen, TNP-Ficoll and the T-cell dependent (TD) antigen, TNP-KLH. Consistent with previous reports 8, 23 Btk-deficient mice did not show TI-II IgM or IgG3 responses (Fig. 6). Similarly, Acalabrutinib E-Btk-2 mice were unresponsive to TNP-Ficoll immunization, whereas EY-Btk-5 mice responded similarly to WT mice (Fig. 6C). The response to the TD
antigen TNP-KLH was assessed 1 wk after immunization (IgM) and 1 wk after booster immunization (IgG). WT and Btk-deficient mice had similar primary IgM and secondary IgG1 responses (Fig. 6D), but these were severely reduced in E-Btk-2 and EY-Btk-5 mice. Consistent with defective TD responses, clusters of PNA+ germinal center B cells were not detectable (E-Btk-2) or severely reduced (EY-Btk-5) in immunohistochemical analyses (data not shown). In summary, these findings demonstrate that both E-Btk2 and EY-Btk5 Tg efficiently drive IgM+ plasma cell differentiation, but this is not associated with increased functional TI-II responses. Moreover, TD responses and germinal center
formation were Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II significantly affected by the presence of constitutive active Btk. As the E-Btk-2 and EY-Btk-5 B cells were spontaneously driven into germinal center-independent PS-341 molecular weight plasma cell differentiation, the Btk Tg mice may have lost self-tolerance. In serum of 9–12 wk old animals we found that anti-nucleosome-specific IgM was increased in E-Btk-2, but not in EY-Btk-5 mice, to levels that were similar to those found in autoimmune MRL/lpr control mice (Fig. 7A). No anti-nucleosome IgG was detectable in WT or Btk Tg mice. Serum analysis of ∼35 wk old mice revealed that total IgM levels increased with age and that IgM serum levels in E-Btk-2 and EY-Btk-5 mice remained dramatically elevated compared with values in WT mice (Fig. 7B). Strikingly, E-Btk-2 mice had developed dramatically increased anti-nucleosome IgM, which was at least >15 times the level found in MRL/lpr mice (Fig. 7C). Also in YE-Btk-5 mice anti-nucleosome activity was detectable, but concentrations were lower. Overexpression of unmutated human Btk (in Btk-2 mice, also under the control of the CD19 promoter 28) or high-level expression of E41K-Btk (in E-Btk-3 mice) did not induce anti-nucleosome IgM (Fig. 7C). Although immunohistochemical stainings of kidneys revealed the presence of enlarged glomeruli containing IgM deposition in E-Btk-2 Tg mice (Fig. 7D), we did not find evidence for autoimmune disease, such as proteinuria or glomerular inflammation.