Essential amino acid balance during development was not correlate

Essential amino acid balance during development was not correlated with the Artemia feeding regime, but rather reflected inherent variations of the own species ontogeny. Larval requirements in essential minerals were fully supplied by the enriched Artemia.”

virus (EBV) infection has been observed in tumor-infiltrated macrophages, but its GSK461364 nmr infection effects on macrophage immune functions are poorly understood. Here, we showed that some macrophages in the tumor stroma of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) tissue expressed the immunosuppressive protein indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) more strongly than did tumor cells. EBV infection induced mRNA, protein, and enzymatic activity of IDO in human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). Infection increased the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), whereas the neutralizing antibodies against TNF-alpha and IL-6 inhibited IDO induction. EBV infection Z VAD FMK also activated the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38 and NF-kappa B, and the inhibition of these two pathways with SB202190 and SN50 almost abrogated TNF-alpha and IL-6 production and inhibited IDO production. Moreover, the activation of IDO in response to EBV infection of MDMs suppressed the proliferation of T cells and impaired the cytotoxic activity of CD8(+)

T cells, whereas the inhibition of IDO activity with 1-methyl-L-tryptophan (1-MT) did not affect T cell proliferation and function. These findings indicate that EBV-induced IDO expression in MDMs is substantially mediated by IL-6- and TNF-alpha-dependent mechanisms via the p38/MAPK and NF-kappa B pathways, suggesting that a possible role of EBV-mediated IDO expression in tumor stroma of NPC may be to create a microenvironment of suppressed T cell immune responses.”
“Treatment Cyclosporin A Immunology & Inflammation inhibitor delay, or the time lapse between diagnosis and surgery, may have a detrimental effect on cancer outcomes. This study assesses the effect of treatment delay

on cancer-related outcomes in a large, continuous series of surgically treated colon cancer patients. All surgical colon cancer cases at our center from 2004 through 2011 were reviewed. Patients who underwent preoperative chemotherapy, emergency admissions, palliative cases, and incidental and postoperative diagnoses were excluded. Treatment delay was correlated with outcomes in univariate and multivariate regression and proportional hazards models. In 769 included patients, for every treatment-delay quartile increase, odds of death decreased by an odds ratio (OR) of 0.78 (p = 0.001), and metastatic recurrence by OR 0.78 (p = 0.013). Shorter survival duration had a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.81 (p = 0.001) and shorter disease-free survival HR 0.72 (p smaller than 0.001). Multivariate regression adjusting for baseline staging greatly reduces these ratios, and makes them non-significant.

(C) 2014 S Karger AG, Basel”
“Modern systems biology and sy

(C) 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Modern systems biology and synthetic bioengineering face two major challenges in

relating properties of the genetic components of a natural or engineered system to its integrated behavior. The first is the fundamental unsolved problem of relating the digital representation of the genotype to the analog representation of the parameters for the molecular components. For example, knowing the DNA sequence does not allow one to determine the kinetic parameters of an enzyme. The second find more is the fundamental unsolved problem of relating the parameters of the components and the environment to the phenotype of the global system. For example, knowing the parameters does not tell one how many qualitatively distinct phenotypes are in the organism’s repertoire or the relative fitness of the phenotypes in different environments. These also are challenges for biomedical engineers as they BTSA1 supplier attempt to develop therapeutic strategies to treat pathology or to redirect normal cellular functions for biotechnological purposes. In this article, the second of these fundamental challenges will be addressed, and the notion of a “system design space”

for relating the parameter space of components to the phenotype space of bioengineering systems will be focused upon. First, the concept of a system design space will be motivated by introducing one of its key components from an intuitive perspective. Second, a simple linear example will be used to illustrate a generic method for constructing the design space in which qualitatively distinct phenotypes can be identified

and counted, their fitness analyzed and compared, and their tolerance to change measured. Third, two examples of nonlinear systems from different areas of biomedical engineering will be presented. Finally, after giving reference to a few other applications that have made use of the system design space approach to reveal important design principles, some concluding remarks concerning challenges and opportunities for further development will be made.”
“Interleukin (IL)-10 is the most important cytokine with anti-inflammatory properties besides TGF-beta and IL-35. It is produced R788 research buy by activated immune cells, in particular monocytes/macrophages and T cell subsets including Tr1, Treg, and Th1 cells. IL-10 acts through a transmembrane receptor complex, which is composed of IL-10R1 and IL-10R2, and regulates the functions of many different immune cells. In monocytes/macrophages, IL-10 diminishes the production of inflammatory mediators and inhibits antigen presentation, although it enhances their uptake of antigens. Additionally, IL-10 plays an important role in the biology of B cells and T cells.

In the third monkey, who was slower to learn the task, peak voxel

In the third monkey, who was slower to learn the task, peak voxels showed no systematic changes. Thus, VBM can detect significant brain changes in individual trained monkeys exposed to tool-use training for the first time. This approach could open up a means of investigating the underlying neurobiology of motor learning and other higher brain functions in individual animals.”
“A complete micropropagation protocol was developed by applying different plant growth regulators (PGRs) of a vulnerable and high value aromatic medicinal plant, Hedychium spicatum. Three cytokinins,

6-benzyladenine (BA), kinetin (KN) and thidiazuron (TDZ) were used and among these, the lower concentration of TDZ (1.0 mu M) was found to be the most effective treatment in relation to induction of high frequency shoot multiplication (83.33%), number of shoots per explant (3.86 shoots) and average number of shoots per flask (19.33 shoots). Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indole-3-butyric

buy XMU-MP-1 acid (IBA) and alpha-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) were the used auxins in this study for in-vitro rooting. Among these used auxins, the lower concentration of IBA (2.5 mu M) was the prominent plant growth regulator regarding in vitro rooting. Well rooted check details and healthy plantlets were obtained after 2 months of hardening and transferred to the field (1990 m) with 90.0% survival. On the basis of available literature, this is the first and significant study regarding the comparative Liproxstatin-1 chemical structure effect of different PGRs on in-vitro propagation study of H. spicatum. This significant study could be useful for large scale propagation and ex-situ conservation of this vulnerable Himalayan species.”
“Aim: This study examined beta-cell function and insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) in Asian Indian youth with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM-Y) and prediabetes.\n\nSubjects and Methods: Eighty-two subjects with non-insulin-requiring

type 2 diabetes and age of onset below 25 years were recruited within 18 months of diagnosis and compared with age- and sex-matched subjects with prediabetes (n = 31) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) (n = 83). Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference were measured, and blood samples were taken in the fasting state and after 30, 60, 90, and 120 min of an oral glucose load for assessment of plasma glucose and insulin levels. Insulin sensitivity/resistance measures was calculated by using the reciprocal of the fasting insulin, the HOMA-IR equation, and the composite whole body insulin sensitivity index (Matsuda Index), and beta-cell function was calculated by the oral disposition index (DIo).\n\nResults: T2DM-Y and prediabetes subjects had higher BMI, waist circumference, and fasting insulin than NGT subjects (P < 0.05 for each). The 30-min insulin levels were lower in T2DM-Y and higher in prediabetes subjects compared with NGT (57 and 140 vs. 129 mu IU/mL, P < 0.001).

Enrichment of KEGG analysis showed that the pathways of phagosome

Enrichment of KEGG analysis showed that the pathways of phagosome and protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum contained the most altered genes in the LPS group, but the percentage of phagosome pathway almost

doubled in BHT group. Most DEGs involved in the LPS signal recognition system was up-regulated in LPS group, but partly decreased in BHT group. RT-PCR results of eight relative genes were consistent with the results of microarrays. Conclusion: DEGs of LPS febrile syndrome mainly involved oxidoreductase and catalytic activity of the metabolic processes, and learn more pathways of processing protein for pyrotoxin recognition; BHT mostly regulated the DEGs in the phagosome pathway to clear LPS in the liver, and partly interfered with gene expression

in LPS recognition system. The study provided an important pioneering result on gene expression profiling research, and will facilitate Wnt mutation the clinical care or further studies of the formula. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Lactobacillus plantarum strains were isolated from fully ripened, white brined Bulgarian home-made cheeses. Strains were derived from phenotypically homogenous Lactobacillus group and were identified as L. plantarum based on both phenotypic and molecular identification (species-specific and multiplex PCR) methods. Heterogeneity of L. plantarum isolates was evaluated by Rep-PCR analysis.\n\nFurther antimicrobial activity, antibiotic susceptibility and transit

tolerance of the strains were evaluated. Most of them showed broad spectrum of activity against Gram-negative bacteria (including human pathogens) independent on the presence of organic acids or hydrogen peroxide.\n\nAll strains were sensitive to amoxicillin and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, Ulixertinib inhibitor resistant to clinically relevant beta-lactame antibiotics (penicillin and ampicillin) and to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, streptomycin, and vancomycin. Significant variability in the sensitivity to tetracycline was noted.\n\nThe tolerance to low pH, bile salts, pepsin and pancreatin at concentrations similar to those in the gastrointestinal tract was strain-dependent. The exposure to bile salts was less destructive than exposure to pH 2.0 for all tested strains. Based on their combined responses to the above selection criteria, four L. plantarum strains, RL29, RL34, RL36 and RL37, were selected as potential probiotics for in vivo studies.”
“The syntheses, structures and biological evaluation of a series of cisplatin-like complexes containing bis (imidazole) derivatives – the so-called Joseph ligands – are described. Their cytotoxicity is discussed in terms of their polar surface area, rate of aquation, and lipophilicity. The X-ray crystal structure of the platinum diiodido derivative of dimethyl 2-(di(1H-imidazol-2-yl)methyl)malonate) is reported and compared to those of related systems.

In conclusion, this study showed that the amplitudes and latencie

In conclusion, this study showed that the amplitudes and latencies of the ABRs of acoustic and RW stimulation showed significant differences at comparable stapes velocities in an in vivo system. These differences in the ABR amplitudes and latencies reflect different output functions of the cochlea in response to different stimulation pathways. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a new method for quantifying the output of the cochlea in the

case of RW stimulation. (C) 2014 Published by Elsevier B.V.”
“Background: Maternal overweight, obesity and consequently the incidence of gestational diabetes are increasing rapidly worldwide. The Rabusertib objective of the study was to assess the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a combined diet and physical activity intervention implemented before, during and after pregnancy in a primary health care setting for preventing gestational diabetes, later type 2 diabetes and other metabolic consequences. Methods: RADIEL is a randomized controlled multi-center intervention trial in women at high risk for diabetes (a previous history of gestational diabetes or prepregnancy BMI bigger than = 30 kg/m(2)). Participants planning Screening Library in vitro pregnancy or in the first half of pregnancy were parallel-group randomized into an intervention

arm which received lifestyle counseling and a control arm which received usual care given at their local antenatal clinics. All participants visited a study nurse every three months before and during pregnancy, and at 6 weeks,

6 and 12 months postpartum. Measurements and laboratory tests were performed on all participants with special focus on dietary and exercise habits and metabolic markers. Of the 728 women [mean age 32.5 years (SD 4.7); median parity 1 (range 0-9)] considered to be eligible for the study 235 were non-pregnant and 493 pregnant [mean gestational age 13 (range 6 to 18) weeks] at the time GSK461364 Cell Cycle inhibitor of enrollment. The proportion of nulliparous women was 29.8% (n = 217). Out of all participants, 79.6% of the non-pregnant and 40.4% of the pregnant women had previous gestational diabetes and 20.4% of the non-pregnant and 59.6% of the pregnant women were recruited because of a prepregnancy BMI = 30 kg/m(2). Mean BMI at first visit was 30.1 kg/m(2) (SD 6.2) in the non-pregnant and 32.7 kg/m(2) (SD 5.6) in the pregnant group. Discussion: To our knowledge, this is the first randomized lifestyle intervention trial, which includes, besides the pregnancy period, both the prepregnancy and the postpartum period. This study design also provides an opportunity to focus upon the health of the next generation. The study is expected to produce novel information on the optimal timing and setting of interventions and for allocating resources to prevent obesity and diabetes in women of reproductive age.

Concerns related to SGLT2 inhibition include the fact that by the

Concerns related to SGLT2 inhibition include the fact that by their very nature they cause glucose elevation in the urine that can theoretically lead to urinary tract and genital infections, electrolyte imbalances and increased AP24534 ic50 urinary frequency. Although studies to date have been promising in terms of these and other concerns, longer-term

studies evaluating the usual safety and efficacy outcomes will need to be conducted. Similarly, head-to-head comparator trials are needed to determine the role of SGLT2 inhibitors in relation to the many other therapeutic options available for the treatment of T2DM. If significant reductions in haemoglobin AI, are associated with SGLT2 inhibitor therapy, and these agents are determined to be safe and well tolerated in the long term, selleck chemicals llc they could become a major breakthrough in the T2DM treatment armamentarium.”
“Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy in terms of inflammation, but the direct role of the MCP-1/CCR2 system on podocyte apoptosis under diabetic conditions has never been explored. In vitro, mouse podocytes were exposed to a medium containing 30 mM glucose (HG) with or without CCR2 siRNA or CCR2 inhibitor (RS102895). Podocytes were also treated with MCP-1 or

TGF-beta 1 with or without anti-TGF-beta 1 antibody, CCR2 siRNA, or CCR2 inhibitor. In vivo, 20 db/m and 20 db/db mice were divided into two groups, and ten mice from each group were treated with RS102895. Western blot and Hoechst 33342 or TUNEL staining were performed to identify apoptosis. HG-induced apoptosis and TGF-beta 1 levels were significantly abrogated by CCR2 inhibition. In addition, treatment with MCP-1 directly 4EGI-1 Others inhibitor induced apoptosis via CCR2. Moreover, TGF-beta 1- and MCP-1-induced apoptosis were significantly ameliorated by the inhibition of CCR2 and anti-TGF-beta 1 antibody, respectively.

Glomerular expression of cleaved caspase-3 and apoptotic cells within glomeruli were also significantly increased in db/db mice compared to db/m mice, and these increases were significantly attenuated in db/db + RS102895 mice. These results suggest that interactions between the MCP-1/CCR2 system and TGF-beta 1 may contribute to podocyte apoptosis under diabetic conditions.”
“Lysyl oxidase is a highly insoluble enzyme requiring high concentrations of urea to solubilize. A method to obtain lysyl oxidase in high yields directly from an Escherichia coli culture without the need for refolding of inclusion bodies has been developed using nutrient rich media. pET21b was used to overexpress the lysyl oxidase enzyme and to introduce a C-terminal 6X histidine tag for purification. Lysyl oxidase yields of 10 mg of active and properly folded enzyme per liter of media have been obtained. Purification was achieved via affinity chromatography using a Ni-NTA column.

31 +/- 0 14, p = 0 029), while PCA component 2 (IL-6, IL-1 beta,

31 +/- 0.14, p = 0.029), while PCA component 2 (IL-6, IL-1 beta, and IL-8) was significantly associated with gingival condition (OR 1.60 95% CI 1.09-2.34, p = 0.016). In general, increased salivary inflammatory burden is associated PFTα molecular weight with decreased glycemic control and self-reported gingival condition. Conclusions The saliva may represent a useful reservoir of novel noninvasive inflammatory biomarkers predictive of the progression and control of T1D.”
“Fungal activity is a major driver in the global nitrogen cycle, and mounting evidence suggests that fungal denitrification

activity contributes significantly to soil emissions of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). The metabolic pathway and oxygen requirement for fungal denitrification are different Z-IETD-FMK nmr from those for bacterial denitrification. We hypothesized that the soil N2O emission from fungi is formate and O-2 dependent and that land use and landforms could influence the proportion of N2O coming from fungi. Using substrate-induced respiration inhibition under anaerobic and aerobic conditions in combination with N-15 gas analysis, we found that formate and hypoxia (versus anaerobiosis) were essential for the fungal reduction of N-15-labeled nitrate to (N2O)-N-15. As much as 65% of soil-emitted N2O was attributable to fungi; however, this was found only in soils

from water-accumulating landforms. From these results, we hypothesize that plant root exudates could affect N2O production from fungi via the proposed formate-dependent

“Copy number variation (CNV) in the genome is a complex phenomenon, and not completely understood. We have developed a method, CNVnator, for CNV discovery and genotyping from read-depth (RD) analysis of personal genome sequencing. Our method is based on combining the established mean-shift approach with additional refinements (multiple-bandwidth partitioning and GC correction) to broaden the range of discovered CNVs. We calibrated CNVnator using the extensive validation performed by the 1000 Genomes Project. Because of this, we could use CNVnator for CNV Sotrastaurin datasheet discovery and genotyping in a population and characterization of atypical CNVs, such as de novo and multi-allelic events. Overall, for CNVs accessible by RD, CNVnator has high sensitivity (86%-96%), low false-discovery rate (3%-20%), high genotyping accuracy (93%-95%), and high resolution in breakpoint discovery (<200 bp in 90% of cases with high sequencing coverage). Furthermore, CNVnator is complementary in a straightforward way to split-read and read-pair approaches: It misses CNVs created by retrotransposable elements, but more than half of the validated CNVs that it identifies are not detected by split-read or read-pair. By genotyping CNVs in the CEPH, Yoruba, and Chinese-Japanese populations, we estimated that at least 11% of all CNV loci involve complex, multi-allelic events, a considerably higher estimate than reported earlier.

In vivo studies were carried out in New Zealand albino rabbits A

In vivo studies were carried out in New Zealand albino rabbits. A previously reported promising THC-HG ion-pair formulation was also studied in vivo.\n\nAqueous solubility and stability and in vitro

transcorneal permeability of THC-HG was enhanced significantly in the presence LY2606368 supplier of surfactants. THC levels in the ocular tissues (except cornea) were found to be below detection limits from mineral oil, surfactant or emulsion based formulations containing THC. In contrast, micellar and ion pair based THC-HG formulations produced significantly higher total THC concentrations in the anterior ocular chamber.\n\nIn this study, although delivery of THC to the anterior chamber ocular tissues PI3K inhibitor could be significantly increased through the prodrug and formulation approaches tested, further studies are needed to increase penetration to the back-of-the eye.”
“Context: Paraganglioma (PGL) patients and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) gene mutation carriers at risk for PGLs have a decreased quality of life (QoL). QoL may be affected by the strategy an individual uses when dealing with a stressful situation, ie, specific coping styles. Understanding the various approaches to coping may allow the development

of targeted interventions to improve patient QoL.\n\nObjective: The objective of the study was to assess coping styles in PGL patients and SDH mutation carriers.\n\nDesign: This was a cross-sectional study.\n\nSetting: selleckchem The study was conducted at a tertiary referral center. Patients and\n\nMethods: Coping styles were assessed using the Utrecht Coping List. The results from the study cohort were compared with a control group and data derived from the literature. Potential differences in coping styles

between the various SDH mutation carriers and PGL patients without an SDH mutation were explored.\n\nResults: Of the 174 patients who responded, 122 were SDHD, 25 SDHB, and 2 SDHC mutation carriers. An additional 25 patients lacked an SDH mutation. They recruited 100 peers as controls. Compared with the general population, the study cohort was more avoidant of problems (P < .001) and reported less expression of emotion (P < .01). Compared with patients with other conditions, they sought more social support (P < .001). There were no significant differences in coping styles between the various categories of mutation carriers or PGL patients lacking a mutation.\n\nConclusions: Coping styles of PGL patients and SDH mutation carriers differ from those of control and reference groups and include an avoidant coping style and a lack of emotional expression. (J Clin Endocrinol Metab 98: 3608-3614, 2013)”
“Models which explore the possibilities of emergent self-regulation in the Earth system often assume the timescales associated with changes in various sub-systems to be predetermined.


Accordingly, Go 6983 datasheet inhibition of actin myosin interaction, Ca2+-dependent intracellular signaling,

PKC, PI3K/Akt, MAP kinase p38, and endocytosis pathways did not impair the chitosan effect. These results suggest that the rapid and reversible absorption-enhancing chitosan effect is due to changes in intracellular pH caused by the activation of a chloride-bicarbonate exchanger resulting in the opening of the TJ. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Thyroid dysfunction, however mild, can significantly affect the cardiovascular (CV) system. The effects of thyroid hormones may be viewed as genomic and non-genomic, with the former occurring over a longer time scale and both affecting structural and functional proteins in CV tissue. As the interplay between thyroid function and the CV check details system becomes elucidated, particularly in the context of a system biology approach, the heart failure phenotype is better understood. Symptomatology is related to disturbance in inotropic and chronotropic function. Moreover, biochemical changes reflected by thyroid function

testing with the non-thyroidal illness syndrome can prognosticate and guide therapy in heart failure. In addition, empiric treatment with thyroid hormone analogues or T3 represent emergent and highly controversial interventions. (C) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“A previous rotavirus epidemiological Givinostat order survey in Cordoba, Argentina, revealed an unusually high frequency of mixed G-type infections (41.5%). The genotype distribution of those mixed infections showed that the most prevalent G-type combinations were G1 + G4 (65.0%), G1 + G2 (12.5%), G2 + G4 (3.1%) and G1 + G9 (2.5%). In the present study we analyzed the competitive growth in CaCo-2 cell cultures of strains from the most frequent rotavirus G-type coinfections in order to explain some aspect of the dynamic of G-type replacement along the time. Our results indicated

that G1-type was preferentially selected compared with G2 and G9-genotypes, meanwhile, G1-G4 coinfections showed an efficient co-amplification of both types. Interestingly, this mirrored the high detection rates of both genotypes as single and mixed infections (G1 + G4, 65.0%) in our region. On the other hand, G2-type revealed a better amplification rate with respect to G4-type. Fluctuant rates in the prevalence of different genotypes usually observed along the time could, in part, be explained by successive replacement of strains with different growth characteristics. We hypothesized that one aspect of these different fitnesses can be measured as differential growth in culture of the strains contained in the sample of a mixed infection. Our findings here provide the first data supporting the validity of the competitive replication in vitro to better understand rotavirus G-type circulation patterns. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

“High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) has been investigated and

“High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) has been investigated and industrially applied to extend shelf life of meat-based products. Traditional ham packaged under microaerophilic conditions may sometimes present high lactic acid bacteria

population during refrigerated storage, which limits shelf life due to development of unpleasant odor and greenish and sticky appearance. This study aimed at evaluating the shelf life of turkey ham pressurized find protocol at 400 MPa for 15 min and stored at 4, 8 and 12 degrees C, in comparison to the non pressurized product. The lactic acid bacteria population up to 10(7) CFU/g of product was set as the criteria to determine the limiting shelf life According to such parameter the pressurized sample achieved a commercial viability within 75 days when stored at 4 degrees C while the control lasted only 45 days.

Predictive microbiology using Gompertz and Baranyi and Roberts models fitted well both for the pressurized and control samples. The results indicated that the high hydrostatic pressure treatment greatly increased the turkey ham commercial viability in comparison to the usual length, by slowing down the growth of microorganisms in the product.”
“A reliable emissions inventory is highly important for air quality modelling applications, especially at regional or local scales, which require high resolutions. Consequently, higher resolution emission inventories have been developed that are suitable for regional air quality modelling.\n\nThis research performs an inter-comparative BEZ235 order analysis of different spatial disaggregation methodologies of atmospheric emission inventories. Selleckchem AZD1208 This study is based on two different European emission inventories with different spatial resolutions: 1) the EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme) inventory and 2) an emission

inventory developed by the TNO (Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research). These two emission inventories were converted into three distinct gridded emission datasets as follows: (i) the EMEP emission inventory was disaggregated by area (EMEParea) and (ii) following a more complex methodology (HERMES-DIS – High-Elective Resolution Modelling Emissions System DISaggregation module) to understand and evaluate the influence of different disaggregation methods; and (iii) the TNO gridded emissions, which are based on different emission data sources and different disaggregation methods. A predefined common grid with a spatial resolution of 12 x 12 km(2) was used to compare the three datasets spatially.\n\nThe inter-comparative analysis was performed by source sector (SNAP – Selected Nomenclature for Air Pollution) with emission totals for selected pollutants. It included the computation of difference maps (to focus on the spatial variability of emission differences) and a linear regression analysis to calculate the coefficients of determination and to quantitatively measure differences.