To efficiently control MRSA, vancomycin is recommended , and
in our study we observed no resistance to vancomycin. Fortunately, vancomycin remains active against methicillin resistant strains of S. aureus. In the current study of S. aureus strains isolated from skin, soft tissue, and bone related infections, PVL was the most prevalent toxin in our collection (70.0% of strains), followed by SEB (44.3%), SEG (35.5%), SEA (32.0%), SEH (28.8%), and SEI (28.9%). The genes encoding ETB and SED were not detected in any of the strains, while the SEE (0.8%), SEC (0.6%), and TSST (1%) genes were detected, but at a very low rate (Figure 3). This high detection frequency of the gene encoding FRAX597 price PVL (p < 0.0001) was observed throughout the analysis, regardless of the origin of the sample (Figure 4). Anlotinib datasheet PVL appears to be a primordial toxin of S. aureus strains associated with skin, soft tissue, and bone related infections.
These results are lower than the 96% of PVL-positive production strains we observed among S. aureus isolated from furuncle . But the prevalence of PVL-positive S. aureus obtained in our study is higher than the 52.1% observed in Dehydrogenase inhibitor Nigeria  and in cape Verdes Island . The observe differences observed can be explain by the fact that in our study, we use various kind of strains. However, our result is close to the 72% obtained in Algeria . Then, comparing with the other studies, we can say that the prevalence level of PVL ocus varies with geographical location, and clinical specimen  In the clinical field, PVL-positive S. aureus strains are more pathogenic than PVL-negative strains . This is explained by the fact that the lytic activity of PVL directly affects monocytes, macrophages, polynuclear neutrophils, and metamyelocytes, although erythrocytes are not lysed by PVL . PVL toxin is known to have a cytolytic effect, and as such polynuclear neutrophils were identified as important indicators of staphylococcal virulence .
Moreover, the cytolytic activity of PVL is observed at high toxin concentrations, while apoptosis is observed at low next concentrations . Regarding the ETs, only the gene encoding epidermolysin A (ETA) was detected, and in all cases the S. aureus strains were isolated from Buruli ulcers (Figure 4e). Such specific production of ETA by Buruli ulcers may be explained by the fact that ETs are known to be serine active proteases, with their activity highly specialized for desmoglein-1, an important epidermal protein [50, 51]. Therefore, the production of ETA by S. aureus strains from Buruli ulcers indicates a secondary role for S. aureus in the development of these ulcers, which are predominantly caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans.