This clearly indicated the antibacterial activity of silver ions

This clearly indicated the antibacterial activity of silver ions. As the content of organic composite antibacterial agent added to the polymer increased from 0.5% to 1.5% in 0.5% increments, amount of eluted silver MK-2206 ions significantly increased with each 0.5% increment to exert greater antibacterial effect.”
“Human airway trypsin-like protease (HAT), also referred to as TMPRSS11D, is an important physiological enzyme with the main activity pronounced in an airway. In this work we have described the substrate specificity and selectivity study of the protease, performed by the combinatorial approach. Fluorogenic/chromogenic tetrapeptide

library was used for this purpose. The most efficiently hydrolyzed substrates’ sequences that we selected were ABZ-Arg-Gln-Asp-Arg(Lys)-ANB-NH(2). The most active inhibitor with C-terminal Arg residue underwent detectable proteolysis action in the presence of 35 pM of HAT. Based on the selected sequences the two peptide aldehydes were synthesized and (Abz-Arg-Gln-Asp-Arg(Lys)-H) were found to be an effective HAT inhibitor, working in nanomolar range with inhibition constant 54 nM and

112 nM, respectively. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The ERCC1-XPF structure-specific endonuclease is necessary for correct processing of homologous recombination intermediates requiring the removal of end-blocking nonhomologies. We previously showed that targeting GSK2126458 solubility dmso the endogenous CHO APRT locus with plasmids designed to generate such intermediates revealed defective recombination phenotypes in ERCC1 deficient cells, including suppression GSK2126458 of targeted insertion and vector correction recombinants and the generation of a novel class of aberrant recombinants through a deletogenic mechanism. In the present study,

we examined some of the mechanistic features of ERCC1-XPF in processing recombination intermediates by varying gene targeting parameters. These included altering the distance between the double-strand break (DSB) in the targeting vector and the inactivating mutation in the APRT target gene, and changing the position of the target gene mutation relative to the DSB to result in target mutations that were either upstream or downstream from the DSB. Increasing the distance from the DSB in the targeting vector to the chromosomal target gene mutation resulted in an ERCC1 dependent decrease in the efficiency of gene targeting from intermediates presenting lengthy end-blocking nonhomologies. This decrease was accompanied by a shift in the distribution of recombinant classes away from target gene conversions to targeted insertions in both wild-type and ERCC1 deficient cells, and a dramatic increase in the proportion of aberrant recombinants in ERCC1 deficient cells.

In addition, we also found that HIF-1 alpha-modified ASCs signifi

In addition, we also found that HIF-1 alpha-modified ASCs significantly increased HO-1 expression in cisplatin-induced AKI in vivo. Thus, our study indicated HIF-1 alpha-modified ASCs

implantation could provide advanced benefits in the protection again AKI, which will contribute to developing a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of AKI.”
“To evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of topical gel containing nimesulide-loaded nanocapsules using experimental models in vivo, and to compare the anti-inflammatory activity of two nimesulide preparations.\n\nMale Wistar rats (200-250 g) treated with gel containing empty nanocapsules (GEN); gel containing nimesulide in the free form (GNFF) or gel containing nimesulide-loaded nanocapsules (GNN).\n\nNanoprecipitation methods were used to prepare the colloidal suspension. In-vivo experimental models of paw edema, acute Selleckchem KPT-8602 and chronic arthritis, and granuloma formation were used. The gels were applied topically in all models.\n\nThe nanocapsules had an average particle size of 344.6 nm +/- A 4.33 and a polydispersity index of 0.251 +/- A 0.002. The models

of acute inflammation (paw edema and arthritis) showed that GNFF and GNN were able to inhibit the inflammatory process with similar efficacy. Moreover, nanoencapsulation significantly increased the anti-inflammatory activity of nimesulide in two chronic inflammation Staurosporine cost models (chronic arthritis and granuloma). The GNFF- and GNN-induced inhibition of inflammation in the chronic arthritis model were 27.75 and 81.5%, respectively. Similarly, GNFF and GNN reduced granuloma formation by 2.82 and 36.66%.\n\nNanoencapsulation increased the anti-inflammatory activity of topical nimesulide in chronic inflammation models.”
“Dendritic spines of medium spiny neurons represent an essential site of information processing between NMDA U0126 and dopamine receptors in striatum. Even if activation of NMDA receptors in the striatum has important implications for synaptic plasticity

and disease states, the contribution of specific NMDA receptor subunits still remains to be elucidated. Here, we show that treatment of corticostriatal slices with NR2A antagonist NVP-AAM077 or with NR2A blocking peptide induces a significant increase of spine head width. Sustained treatment with D1 receptor agonist (SKF38393) leads to a significant decrease of NR2A-containing NMDA receptors and to a concomitant increase of spine head width. Interestingly, co-treatment of corticostriatal slices with NR2A antagonist (NVP-AAM077) and D1 receptor agonist augmented the increase of dendritic spine head width as obtained with SKF38393. Conversely, NR2B antagonist (ifenprodil) blocked any morphological effect induced by D1 activation.

There was no significant change in levels of anti-neutrophil cyto

There was no significant change in levels of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody post-vaccination. There was no significant change in disease activity in vaccinated patients compared with non-vaccinated patients. Among vaccinated healthy individuals, we did not observe any significant change in the level of autoantibodies measured.

Conclusion: This study shows that the administration of influenza vaccine to patients in remission with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis is both safe and modestly efficacious.”
“Rickettsia sibirica sibirica is the causative agent of Siberian or North Asian tick typhus, a tick-borne rickettsiosis known to exist in Siberia and eastern China. Here we present the draft PLX3397 cell line genome of Rickettsia sibirica sibirica strain BJ-90

isolated from Dermacentor sinicus ticks collected in Beijing, China.”
“Objective: Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) may have a higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease caused by altered endocrine, metabolic, and inflammatory parameters. Increased intima-media thickness (IMT) is considered an early marker of atherosclerosis and is associated with most cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: The mean IMT of the common carotid arteries was assessed selleckchem by B-mode ultrasound in 47 women with BPD and 28 age-matched healthy women. Mean (standard deviation) age for BPD participants was 31.2 (10.4) years and 31.9 (11.0) years for the comparison group. In addition, Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for metabolic syndrome and markers of inflammation were measured. The patients were characterized by applying DSM-IV criteria and obtaining self-reports of adverse childhood experiences. Results: Women with BPD had a significantly higher IMT than healthy women (mean [standard deviation] = 0.41 [0.11] versus 0.34 [0.11] mm, p = .02). In linear

regression analysis, IMT was significantly Staurosporine molecular weight associated with BPD even when adjusting for body mass index (beta = 0.27, p = .04) and physical activity (beta = 0.29, p = .02). Conclusions: The data suggest that women with BPD are at increased risk of developing subsequent cardiovascular disease.”
“The growth of Penicillium expansum and Aspergillus niger, isolated from yogurt production environment, was investigated on malt extract agar with pH=4.2 and a(w)=0.997, simulating yogurt, at isothermal conditions ranging from -1.3 to 35 degrees C and from 5 to 42.3 degrees C, respectively. The growth rate (mu) and (apparent) lag time (lambda) of the mycelium growth were modelled as a function of temperature using a Cardinal Model with Inflection (CMI). The results showed that the CM! can describe successfully the effect of temperature on fungal growth within the entire biokinetic range for both isolates. The estimated values of the CMI for mu were T(min)=5.74 degrees C, T(max)=30.97 degrees C, T(opt)=22.08 degrees C and mu(opt)=0.221 mm/h for P. expansum and T(min)=10.13 degrees C.

3 (94,892 9 (sic)/67) Sensitivity analysis

3 (94,892.9 (sic)/67). Sensitivity analysis showed that in 95% of cases the cost might vary between (sic)70,847.3 and (sic)121,882.5 and avoided admissions

between 30 and 102. In 72.4% of the simulations the program was cost-effective. Conclusions: Sensitivity analysis showed that in most situations the PCC Program would be cost-effective, although in a percentage of cases the program could raise overall cost of care, despite always reducing the number of admissions. (C) 2013 Elsevier Espana, S.L.U. All rights reserved.”
“Background: There is growing evidence for the efficacy of mechanical thrombectomy in acute stroke patients with large-vessel occlusions in the anterior circulation. Although distal occlusions of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) can cause severe clinical symptoms, endovascular therapy is not considered here as the first choice. The aim of our study was to prove the efficacy and safety of mechanical thrombectomy for distal occlusion types in the anterior circulation (M2-segment). Methods: Stentretriever-based thrombectomy was performed

in 119 patients Tozasertib chemical structure with acute MCA occlusions between October 2011 and April 2013: 104 (87.4%) were M1- and 15 (12.6%) M2-occlusions. These groups were compared with regard to recanalization success, periprocedural complications, hemorrhage, and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 90 days. Results: Thrombolysis in cerebral infarction 2b/3 reperfusion was more frequent in M2- than in M1-occlusions (93.3% versus 76.0%; P = .186). There was no significant difference in the mean National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale between the M1- and the M2-group both at admission and at discharge (16.18 +/- 7.30 versus 13.73 +/- 8.30, P = .235; 9.36 +/- 8.60 versus 7.43 +/- 9.84, P

= .446). A good clinical outcome (mRS 0-2) at 3 months was more frequent in the M2-group (60% versus 43.3%; P = .273) and mortality was higher in the M1-group learn more (21.2% versus 6.7%; P = .297). There were 3 periprocedural complications in the M1- and none in the M2-group. Conclusions: Endovascular treatment of M2-occlusions in severely affected patients is not associated with a higher procedural risk or postprocedural hemorrhage. Compared with M1-occlusions, there was a greater chance for a good angiographic and clinical result in our case series. Therefore, stentretriever-based thrombectomy should also be considered for patients with severe symptoms because of an acute M2-occlusion. (C) 2015 by National Stroke Association”
“Objective: To create and validate a simple, standardized version of the antisaccade (AS) task that requires no specialized equipment for use as a measure of executive function in multicenter clinical studies.\n\nMethods: The bedside AS (BAS) task consisted of 40 pseudorandomized AS trials presented on a laptop computer. BAS performance was compared with AS performance measured using an infrared eye tracker in normal elders (NE) and individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia (n = 33).

High ICC values of ROM (0 955) and VEL (0 970) indicated a high w

High ICC values of ROM (0.955) and VEL (0.970) indicated a high within-subject repeatability of the task. A high waveform similarity of torque curves was also found between trials (CMD = 0.867). Accuracy with respect to isokinetic dynamometer in estimating ROM was always smaller than 1 degree (p = 0.37). This study showed the effectiveness of using a single wearable IMU for the assessment of strength curve during isoinertial movements in a way that complies with the needs of clinicians in an ambulatory setting.”
“Daughter strand gaps formed upon interruption of replication at DNA lesions in Escherichia coli can be repaired by either translesion DNA synthesis or homologous recombination (HR)

repair. Using a plasmid-based assay system that enables discrimination between strand transfer Pfizer Licensed Compound Library price and template switching buy PF-04929113 (information copying) modes of HR gap repair, we found that approximately 80% of strand gaps were repaired by physical strand transfer from the donor, whereas approximately 20% appear to be repaired by template switching. HR gap repair operated on both small

and bulky lesions and largely depended on RecA and RecF but not on the RecBCD nuclease. In addition, we found that HR was mildly reduced in cells lacking the RuvABC and RecG proteins involved in resolution of Holliday junctions. These results, obtained for the first time under conditions that detect AZD5582 nmr the two HR gap repair mechanisms, provide in vivo high-resolution molecular

evidence for the predominance of the strand transfer mechanism in HR gap repair. A small but significant portion of HR gap repair appears to occur via a template switching mechanism. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A cohort of 67 confirmed SARS patients were prospectively followed for 16 months and were compared with a control population. Serum samples taken at various times were tested for IgG and IgM; dynamic serological changes in these antibodies were described. The positive responses of IgM and IgG antibodies in sera against SARS virus from the first week to the sixth week after onset of the illness in patients with SARS were measured. The ELISA test of IgG antibody was negative in 200 community controls. The positive rate in the SARS high-risk population was 0.61% tested by ELISA and 0.21% by IFA. The high-risk population in this study was defined as those who provided health care and other services to SARS patients during the outbreak. IgG antibody in convalescent serum of patients with SARS revealed an increasing trend, peaking at the 22nd week after onset of illness followed by a slow decline. IgM appeared earlier than IgG and can be better used for early detection. IgG remained at a high level for a much longer period, serving as a good indicator for follow-up and for assessing past exposure. Our results also suggest that sub-clinical infection, if it exists, is very rare.

Transseptal puncture was successfully performed under transoesoph

Transseptal puncture was successfully performed under transoesophageal guidance and the arrhythmia was successfully ablated. This case showed that transseptal puncture can be safely learn more performed in the presence of an Amplatzer septal occluder device under transoesophageal echocardiography guidance and we speculate that the device may have created the substrate for the arrhythmia.”
“Clinical meaning can be assigned to scores of health status measures by using a variety of approaches. The anchor-based approach involves determining the difference on a

quality of life (QOL) scale that corresponds to a self-reported small but important change on a global scale given concomitantly, which serves as an independent anchor. This article focuses on the anchor-based banding approach and reviews methods to assign clinical meaning to QOL measures, specifically the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) and Skindex. This article also includes pilot data that compares the DLQI and Skindex using these previously validated banding systems.”
“The human formyl peptide receptor (FPR)

plays an important role in inflammation and immunity. Finding of specific 4EGI-1 in vitro agonists and antagonists of FPR may provide potential therapeutic agents for FPR related disorders. The binding of agonist by FPR induces a cascade of G protein-mediated signaling events leading to neutrophil chemotaxis, intracellualr calcium mobilization, FPR ligand uptake and so on. This work proposed a microfluidic-based method to characterize FPR-related cellular events in response to small peptides, N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLF), in rat basophilic leukemia cell line RBL-2H3 expressing human FPR (RBL-FPR). The results showed that fMLF triggered chemotaxis, calcium mobilization and FPR ligand uptake in RBL-FPR cells, indicating the potential role of FPR agonist. The chemotaxis index and the calcium mobilization intensity

increased but the time course of calcium mobilization decreased, as the rising of fMLF concentration. The basic agreement between the microfluidic results and the previous studies demonstrated good feasibility of the microfluidic method for characterization of FPR agonist. Microfluidic technology displays significant advantages over traditional methods in terms of sample consumption and assay time. It also facilitates experimental process and real-time observation of cellular responses selleck chemical at single cell resolution.”
“Atherosclerosis is a major contributor to life-threatening cardiovascular events, the leading cause of death worldwide. Since the mechanisms of atherosclerosis have not been fully understood, currently, there are no effective approaches to regressing atherosclerosis. Therefore, there is a dire need to explore the mechanisms and potential therapeutic strategies to prevent or reverse the progression of atherosclerosis. In recent years, stem cell-based therapies have held promises to various diseases, including atherosclerosis.

An abundance of urinary proteins could provide a wide


An abundance of urinary proteins could provide a wide

variety of biomarkers for the diagnosis and follow-up of many systemic diseases as well. This article reviews the utility of urinary proteomics for biomarker discovery from the perspective of clinical application. Despite huge potential and prompt development of urinary proteomics, many challenges are still in front of us. Research effort and financial investment have to be oriented on providing strategies for exceeding current methodological and technical obstacles in a way to ensure the successful validation and implementation of newly discovered urinary biomarkers. The result is expected to be the development of new non-invasive tests and procedures able to guarantee higher efficiency of patient care and provide needed personalized medical approach.</.”
“Solution-processed selleck spherical surface textures are demonstrated on commercial amorphous silicon

solar cells. The texture is formed with a monolayer of silica microspheres by convective coating, followed by a spin-on-glass film. It is found that the spherical texture reduces the reflectivity of the cells in the wavelength regime of 400-1200 nm, thus broad spectrum. It is also found that the spherical texture improves the efficiency of the cells at various incident angles from surface normal to at least 60 degrees. The improvement in efficiency increases at larger incident angles to GW4869 as high as 12% relative improvement, demonstrating its omnidirectionality. Current-voltage characteristics show that the efficiency improvement with coating is largely due to the increased short circuit current, while the open-circuit voltage remains the same. Therefore the efficiency

improvement is attributed to more light coupled into the cells. This omnidirectional surface texture offers an attractive solution for antireflection in both polycrystalline silicon and thin-film solar cells.”
“Antibiotic residues in edible animal products are of great concern to regulatory agencies and consumers, so reliable screening methods for rapid, selective and sensitive detection of these residues are necessary click here to ensure food safety.\n\nIn recent years, great efforts have been made to simplify the treatment of solid food samples and also to introduce high-throughput methods, so different screening methods have been developed.\n\nThis review presents a general overview on the progress of the three most important screening approaches to detect antibiotic residues in food samples (i.e. immunoassays, microbiological tests and biosensors). Their main advantages are short analysis time, high sensitivity and selectivity for immunoassays, simplicity and low cost for microbiological tests, and automation and the possibility of in situ analysis for biosensors. Moreover, it is important to note a great increase in the number of commercial kits.

The designation of Isc (impermeable seed coat) for this single ge

The designation of Isc (impermeable seed coat) for this single gene has been approved by the Soybean Genetics Committee. Selection of the recessive form (isc) may be important in developing cultivars with permeable seed coat for high-heat production environments. The single-gene nature of impermeable seed coat may also have potential for being utilized in reducing seed damage caused by weathering and mold.”
“Fluoroscopy is an important tool for diagnosis in the pediatric population, but it carries the risk of radiation exposure. Because radiology resident education and experience in the

use of fluoroscopy equipment in children vary, we implemented an intervention to standardize fluoroscopy training. The purpose of this study is to determine the

impact of implementing a fluoroscopy competency check-off for radiology resident trainees aimed at decreasing radiation exposure in three common pediatric fluoroscopic studies. A fluoroscopy competency Epigenetics inhibitor check-off form was developed for radiology resident trainees performing pediatric procedures. Techniques used to limit radiation exposure for common pediatric radiologic studies were reviewed as part of the check-off process. Pediatric radiologists supervised each trainee until they demonstrated competence to independently perform three specified procedures. Radiation dose was recorded for the three procedures, upper GI (UGI), voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) and oropharyngeal (OPM) exams, over 6 months preceding and Danusertib 6 months following implementation of the competency check-off. The mean cumulative dose for each procedure was compared before and after

implementation of competency check-off using a Kruskal-Wallis test. During the 12-month study period doses from 909 fluoroscopic procedures were recorded. In the 6 months preceding competency check-off implementation, procedures were performed by 24 radiology resident trainees including 171 UGI, 176 VCUG and 171 OPM exams. In the 6 months following competency check-off, 23 trainees performed 114 UGI, 145 VCUG and 132 OPM exams. After competency check-off implementation, a statistically significant reduction in average radiation dose was found for all three studies (P smaller than 0.001). BMS-777607 molecular weight Median cumulative doses (mGy) were decreased by 33%, 36% and 13% for UGIs, VCUGs and OPMs, respectively. Implementation of a competency check-off for radiology resident trainees can reduce average radiation doses in pediatric patients undergoing three common fluoroscopic studies.”
“Various ways of targeting TRAIL-death receptors for the treatment of a diverse set of malignancies are being explored in ongoing clinical trials. Recent data of ours and others suggest that loss of the only death signaling receptor in mice ( TRAIL-R) is associated with susceptibility to various stages of lymphomagenesis and carcinogenesis, perhaps in a complex cell- and model-specific manner.

In the study reported here, we expressed Tat in tomato and observ

In the study reported here, we expressed Tat in tomato and observed phenotypic abnormalities, including stunted growth, absence of root formation, chlorosis, and plant death, as a result of reduced cytokinin levels. These reduced levels were ascribed to a differentially expressed CKO35 in Tat-bombarded tomato. Of the two CKO isoforms that are naturally expressed in tomato, CKO43 and CKO37, only the expression GW786034 mouse of CKO37 was affected

by Tat. Our analysis of the Tat confirmed that the Arg-rich and RGD motifs of Tat have functional relevance in tomato and that independent mutations at these motifs caused inhibition of the differentially expressed CKO isoform and the extracellular secretion of the Tat protein, respectively, in our Tat-bombarded tomato samples.”
“Three advances are dramatically changing the landscape of oncology. First, hundreds of drugs are available that inhibit targets selleck chemicals involved in oncogenesis. Second, efforts to reclassify malignant diseases are expanding the number of orphan molecular diseases. Third, the implementation of high-throughput technologies will allow risk of relapse prediction and drug sensitivity. Patients

predicted to relapse will be referred to comprehensive cancer centers where new drugs will be tested. It is anticipated that a high number of small, biology-driven clinical trials will report high sensitivity to targeted agents in rare biologically defined diseases. Drug registration and biomarker analysis needs to be revisited to avoid large phase III trials with control arms. The use of high-throughput technologies will lead Vorinostat mouse to the development of virtual cells. These considerations highlight the need for developing a consortium of comprehensive cancer centers to run clinical trials in rare, molecularly-defined populations, and implement high-throughput technologies for daily practice.”
“MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are promising targets for cell engineering through modulation of crucial cellular pathways. An effective introduction of miRNAs

into the cell is a prerequisite to reliably study microRNA function. Previously, non-viral delivery of nucleic acids has been demonstrated to be cell type as well as culture medium dependent. Due to their importance for biopharmaceutical research and manufacturing, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and Cevec’s Amniocyte Production (CAP) cells were used as host cell lines to investigate transfection reagents with respect to successful delivery of small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) and their ability to allow for biological activity of miRNAs and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) within the cell. In the present study, we screened numerous transfection reagents for their suitability to successfully deliver miRNA mimics into CHO DG44 and CAP cells. Our investigation revealed that the determination of transfection efficiency for a given transfection reagent alone is not sufficient to draw conclusions about its ability to maintain the functionality of the miRNA.

An accelerated immune reaction has been suggested as the cause of

An accelerated immune reaction has been suggested as the cause of markedly rapid beta cell loss in this disease, but the precise mechanism has not been clarified. We analyzed the expression of cytotoxic

T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) in CD4(+) helper T-cells in 16 patients with fulminant type 1 diabetes, 14 patients with type 1A diabetes, 10 patients with type 2 diabetes and 20 normal control subjects. There was a significant reduction in CTLA-4 expression in CD4(+) helper T-cells from patients with fulminant type 1 diabetes (P < 0.05) compared with the other three groups. Low CTLA-4 expression was also observed in both CD4(+)CD25(high) T-cells and CD4(+)CD25(-) T-cells. There was a significant Thiazovivin negative correlation between the proliferation of CD4(+)CD25(-) T-cells and the levels of CTLA-4. Intracellular expression of CTLA-4 in CD4(+) helper T-cells was not correlated with two CTLA-4 polymorphisms. In conclusion, the expression of CTLA-4 in CD4(+) helper T-cells was low in patients with fulminant type 1 diabetes. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights

“Pre-eclampsia not only complicates 5 to 8% of pregnancies but also increases the risk of maternal cardiovascular disease and mortality later in life. We analyzed three different aspects of arterial function (pulse wave velocity, augmentation index, and flow-mediated dilatation), in 55 nonpregnant, normotensive women (18-33 years old) according to their gestational history: 15 nulliparous, 20 with a previous normotensive, and 20 formerly pre-eclamptic

pregnancy. Former pre-eclamptic women showed a significantly higher augmentation selleck chemicals llc index and pulse wave velocity (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively) and lower flow-mediated dilatation HDAC activation (p = 0.01) compared to control groups. In contrast, sublingual nitroglycerine elicited a comparable vasodilatory response in the three groups. The augmentation index correlated significantly with pulse wave velocity and flow-mediated dilatation (R = 0.28 and R = -0.32, respectively, P < 0.05 for both). No significant correlations were observed between augmentation index or flow-mediated dilatation with age, body mass index (BMI), brachial blood pressure, heart rate, or metabolic parameters (plasma cholesterol, glucose, insulin, or insulin resistance). Birth weight maintained a significantly inverse correlation with the augmentation index (R = -0.51, p < 0.002) but not with flow-mediated dilatation. Our findings revealed a parallel decrease in arterial distensibility and endothelium-dependent dilatation in women with a history of pre-eclampsia compared to nulliparous women and women with a previous normal pregnancy. A high augmentation index was the most consistent alteration associated with a history of pre-eclampsia. The study supports the current view that the generalized arterial dysfunction associated with pre-eclampsia persists subclinically after delivery.