Also, we did not observe any acyl-ACP pathway intermediates, only the pathway end-products. This is in contrast to the effect of an enoyl-ACP reductase inhibitor, which results in
almost all of the free ACP being converted to short-chain acyl-ACP . see more These data indicated the presence of a regulatory mechanism that sensed the long-chain acyl-ACP and inhibited initiation of new acyl chains. Figure 6 Alteration in intracellular acyl-ACP and malonyl-CoA following the inactivation of PlsY. (A) Cultures of strain PDJ28 (ΔgpsA) were grown to an OD600 of 0.5, samples were collected, and then the cells were washed to remove the glycerol supplement and the composition of the ACP pool determined by gel electrophoresis of the cell extracts followed by immunoblotting with anti-ACP antibody as described in Methods. (B) Cultures of strain PDJ28 were grown to an OD600 of 0.5, the culture was harvested, washed to removed glycerol and resuspended in media either with or without glycerol supplement. After 30 min, triplicate cell cultures were harvested, extracted and malonyl-CoA quantified by mass spectrometry as described in Methods. The lack of acyl-ACP intermediate detected in the glycerol-deprived cells suggested
that there was sufficient malonyl-CoA present to complete an acyl selleck chemicals llc chain once it was initiated. This question was explored by measuring the intracellular levels of malonyl-CoA in the presence and absence of glycerol by mass spectrometry (Figure 6B). These data showed that malonyl-CoA levels increased following glycerol withdrawal. This observation was consistent with the inhibition of fatty acid synthesis, but at the same time illustrated that there was sufficient malonyl-CoA present to complete the synthesis of any initiated chain in the glycerol-deprived cells. However, the levels of malonyl-CoA remained a minor component of the CoA pool. Acetyl-CoA, the substrate for acetyl-CoA carboxylase, was the most abundant
CoA thioester in S. aureus, as it is in E. coli. Malonyl-CoA was Astemizole 0.8% of the acetyl-CoA pool in cells grown in glycerol and only rose to 3.7% of the acetyl-CoA in the cells deprived of glycerol. These data showed that acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity was also regulated in the absence of phospholipid synthesis because the cells retained a high concentration of acetyl-CoA substrate that was not consumed in the glycerol-deprived cells. The higher levels of malonyl-CoA may also have increased expression of genes controlled by FapR [16, 17], although the pathway would Entinostat remain blocked do the absence of glycerol-PO4. Discussion This study reveals that the synthesis of new membrane PtdGro in S. aureus is not tightly coupled to its utilization by other pathways leading to a significant alteration in membrane homeostasis when phospholipid synthesis halts. Removal of the glycerol supplement from strain PDJ28 (ΔgpsA) results in the cessation of phospholipid synthesis, but the metabolism of PtdGro continues.