61 and 2 04 mu g mL(-1), respectively This method was extensivel

61 and 2.04 mu g mL(-1), respectively. This method was extensively proved to

be accurate, stable, rapid, and sensitive for the determination of diastereomeric purity of tenofovir alafenamide (GS-7340) in bulk samples.”
“Despite the increasing prevalence of heart failure with preserved left ventricular function, there are no specific treatments, partially because the mechanism of impaired relaxation is incompletely understood. Evidence indicates that cardiac relaxation may depend on nitric oxide (NO), generated by NO synthase (NOS) requiring the co-factor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4). Recently, we reported that hypertension-induced diastolic dysfunction was accompanied by cardiac BEL depletion, NOS uncoupling, a depression in myofilament cross-bridge kinetics, and S-glutathionylation of myosin binding protein C (MyBP-C). We hypothesized that the mechanism FOX inhibitor by which BH4 ameliorates diastolic

dysfunction is by preventing glutathionylation of MyBP-C and thus reversing changes of myofilament properties that occur during diastolic dysfunction. We used the deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt mouse model, which demonstrates mild hypertension, myocardial oxidative stress, and diastolic dysfunction. Mice were divided into two groups that received control diet and two groups that received BH4 supplement for 7 days after developing diastolic dysfunction at post-operative day 11. Mice were assessed by echocardiography. Left ventricular papillary detergent-extracted fiber bundles were isolated for simultaneous determination of force and ATPase activity. Sarcomeric protein glutathionylation Napabucasin inhibitor was assessed by immunoblotting. DOCA-salt mice exhibited diastolic dysfunction that was reversed after BH4 treatment. Diastolic sarcomere length (DOCA-salt 1.70 +/- 0.01

vs. DOCA-salt + BH4 1.77 +/- 0.01 mu m, P<0.001) and relengthening (relaxation constant, tau, DOCA-salt 0.28 +/- 0.02 vs. DOCA-salt + BH4 0.08 +/- 0.01, P<0.001) were also restored to control by BH4 treatment. pCa(50) for tension increased in DOCA-salt compared to sham but reverted to sham levels after BH4 treatment. Maximum ATPase rate and tension cost (Delta ATPase/Delta Tension) decreased in DOCA-salt compared to sham, but increased after BH4 treatment Cardiac MyBP-C glutathionylation increased in DOCA-salt compared to sham, but decreased with BH4 treatment. MyBP-C glutathionylation Fer-1 correlated with the presence of diastolic dysfunction. Our results suggest that by depressing S-glutathionylation of MyBP-C, BH4 ameliorates diastolic dysfunction by reversing a decrease in cross-bridge turnover kinetics. These data provide evidence for modulation of cardiac relaxation by post-translational modification of myofilament proteins. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Myocardial ischemia results in early and progressive damage to mitochondrial structure and function, but the molecular events leading to these changes have not been clearly established.

Further well-designed prospective trials are warranted to fully d

Further well-designed prospective trials are warranted to fully determine the long-term effectiveness and safety of this combination as well as its place in therapy.”
“Amniotic membrane (AM), the innermost layer of the fetal membranes, has been widely employed in the surgical

reconstruction and tissue engineering. Expression of the antimicrobial peptides such as defensins, elafin and SLPI which are essential elements of the innate immune system results in antibacterial properties of the AM. Preservation is necessary to reach a ready-to-use source of the AM. However, these methods might change the properties of the AM. The aim of this study was to evaluate antibacterial properties of the AM after preservation.

β-Nicotinamide Antibacterial property of the fresh AM was compared with cryopreserved and freeze-dried AM by modified disk diffusion method. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and two clinical isolated strains of E. coil were cultured in Mueller Hinton MAPK inhibitor agar and a piece of the AM was placed on agar surface. After 24 h incubation, the inhibition zone was measured. In addition, one of the most important antibacterial peptides, elafin, was measured by ELISA assay before and after preservations procedures. Antibacterial properties of the AM were maintained after cryopreservation and freeze-drying. However, the inhibition zone was depending on the bacterial strains. The cryopreservation and freeze-drying procedures significantly decreased elafin which shows that antibacterial property is not limited to the effects of amniotic cells and the other components such as extracellular matrix may contribute in antibacterial effects. The promising results of this study show that the preserved AM is a proper substitute of the fresh AM to be employed in clinical situations. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Some questions are answered

concerning the origins of the Three Rs (Replacement, Reduction, Refinement) concept in relation to animal experimentation, expounded 50 years ago by Russell and Burch in The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique, by reference to some key publications and to correspondence Staurosporine in the W.M.S. and Claire Russell Archive, which is currently being established at the University of Nottingham. Some insight is also given into the relationship between Russell and Burch, the first use of “alternatives” in the Three Rs context, and the background to the publication of the book.”
“Purpose of reviewUnderstanding nasal form and function is critical in performing successful cosmetic rhinoplasty. Careful evaluation of the patient’s nasal airway with identification of areas of existing or potential obstruction is important in avoiding potential pitfalls that may compromise nasal function following rhinoplasty.

Methods: We used Caco-2 monolayers grown on culture inserts a

\n\nMethods: We used Caco-2 monolayers grown on culture inserts as an in vitro model of intestinal permeability and performed Western blotting, permeability, and siRNA inhibition studies to Pevonedistat order examine the role of Clock and Per2 circadian genes in alcohol-induced hyperpermeability. We also measured PER2 protein levels in intestinal mucosa of alcohol-fed rats with intestinal hyperpermeability.\n\nResults: Alcohol, as low as 0.2%, induced time dependent increases in both Caco-2 cell monolayer permeability and in CLOCK and PER2 proteins. SiRNA specific inhibition

of either Clock or Per2 significantly inhibited alcohol-induced monolayer hyperpermeability. Alcohol-fed rats with increased total gut permeability, assessed by urinary sucralose, see more also

had significantly higher levels of PER2 protein in their duodenum and proximal colon than control rats.\n\nConclusions: Our studies: (i) demonstrate a novel mechanism for alcohol-induced intestinal hyperpermeability through stimulation of intestinal circadian clock gene expression, and (ii) provide direct evidence for a central role of circadian genes in regulation of intestinal permeability.”
“Histidine-tag (His-tag) is the most frequently used tag to label and purify recombinant protein kinases, namely autokinases. However, when analyzing protein phosphorylation, it appears that this modification occurs not AZD8186 inhibitor only on the kinase itself but also on several serine residues present

in the vector-derived His-tag sequence, These parasite modifications can thus lead to misinterpretation of the data concerning protein phosphorylation. We report here on a modified vector devoid of serine residues in the tag and, therefore, more appropriate and secure for studying protein phosphorylation. (c) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Halisphingosines A (1) and B (2), modified long-chain sphingoid bases, from the marine sponge Haliclona tubifera collected in Brazil, were characterized after conversion to their N-Boc derivatives. The 2R,3R,6R configuration of halisphingosine A, a compound first reported from Haliclona sp. from South Korea, was confirmed using a novel CD approach: deconvolution of exciton coupling from mono- and trinaphthoyl derivatives obtained by derivatization of the natural product. The sensitive CD deconvolution method, applicable to submilligram samples, simultaneously predicted the relative and absolute configuration of three stereocenters in halisphingosine A with precision and accuracy. Halisphingosine B was assigned by correlation to halisphingosine A.”
“The double-stranded DNA genomes of herpesviruses, exist in at least three alternative global chromatin states characterised by distinct nucleosome content.

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SNIPE integrates spectral counts from paired case-control samples

SNIPE integrates spectral counts from paired case-control samples over a network neighbourhood and SN-38 cell line assesses the statistical likelihood of enrichment by a permutation test. As an initial application, SNIPE was able to select several proteins required for early murine tooth development. Multiple lines of additional experimental evidence confirm that SNIPE can uncover previously unreported transcription factors in this system. We conclude that SNIPE can enhance the utility of shotgun proteomics data to facilitate

the study of poorly detected proteins in complex mixtures.”
“We designed an oligonucleotide microarray using probe sequences based upon a phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes recovered from members of

the bacterial division Acidobacteria. A total of 42,194 oligonucleotide probes targeting members of the Acidobacteria division at multiple phylogenetic levels were included on a high-density microarray. Positive control hybridizations revealed a linear relationship between hybridization signal and template concentration, Oligomycin A supplier and a substantial decrease in non-specific hybridization was achieved through the addition of 2.5 M betaine to the hybridization buffer. A mean hybridization signal value was calculated for each Acidobacteria lineage, with the resultant lineage-specific hybridization data revealing strong predictive value for the positive control hybridizations. The Acidobacteria phylochip was then used to evaluate Acidobacteria rRNA genes from a Wisconsin

soil and within a soil clay fraction. The Acidobacteria hybridization profile revealed the predominance of Acidobacteria subdivisions selleck four and six, and also suggested a decrease in the abundance of subdivision six relative to subdivision four in the soil clay fraction. The change in relative abundance of these subdivisions in a soil clay fraction was supported by data from quantitative PCR. These results support the utility of a phylogenetic microarray in revealing changes in microbial population-level distributions in a complex soil microbial assemblage. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The ambient temperature (20 degrees C) reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization of several water-soluble monomers conducted directly in aqueous media under gamma-initiation (at dose rates of 30 Gy h(-1)) proceeds in a controlled fashion. Using functional trithiocarbonates, i e.. S,S-bis(alpha,alpha’-dimethyl-alpha ”-acetic acid) trithiocarbonate (TRITT), 3-benzylsulfanyl thiocarbonylsulfanyl propionic acid (BPATT).

73 m(2) or proteinuria, with HCV across the published studies \

73 m(2) or proteinuria, with HCV across the published studies.\n\nResults Nine clinical studies (817,917 unique individuals) were identified. Pooling of study results demonstrated the absence of a relationship between HCV seropositive status and reduced estimated GFR (adjusted relative risk, 1.12; 95% confidence interval, 0.91, 1.38; P=0.28) according to the random-effects model. HCV selleck kinase inhibitor seropositive serology was an independent and significant risk factor for proteinuria (defined by urine dipstick test or spot urine albumin/creatinine

ratio) in the general population, with a summary estimate for adjusted relative risk of 1.47 (95% confidence interval, 1.12, 1.94; P=0.006). Significant heterogeneity was observed between studies (Ri=0.82; P value by Q test, <0.001).\n\nConclusions

This meta-analysis shows that HCV is independently associated with proteinuria but not with reduced GFR in the general population. Substantial heterogeneity occurred. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 7: 549-557, 2012. doi: 10.2215/CJN.06920711″
“The X-ray crystal structure of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (Mj-GAPDH) was determined to 1.81 angstrom resolution. The crystal belonged to space group C222(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 83.4, b = 152.0, c = 118.6 angstrom. The structure was solved by molecular replacement and was refined to a final R factor of 17.1% (R(free) = 19.8%). The final structure included the cofactor NADP(+) at the nucleotide-binding selleckchem site and featured unoccupied inorganic and substrate phosphate-binding sites. A comparison with GAPDH structures from mesophilic sources suggested that Mj-GAPDH is stabilized by extensive electrostatic interactions between the C-terminal alpha-helices and various distal loop regions, which are likely to contribute to thermal stability. The key phosphate-binding residues in the active site of Mj-GAPDH are conserved in other archaeal GAPDH proteins. These residues undergo a conformational shift in response to occupancy

of the inorganic phosphate site.”
“Advantages of telemetric devices for long-term intracranial pressure (ICP) measurement have been mentioned several times in the literature. However, descriptions of associated complications are lacking. Therefore, the presented observational selleck chemicals llc study focused on clinical and radiological findings after insertion of an intraparenchymal telemetric ICP monitor.\n\nBetween April 2010 and February 2013, 185 telemetric ICP catheters were implanted for diagnostic purposes. All patients were clinically followed. Radiological, microbiological and clinical data were analysed.\n\nOne brain abscess (0.5 %) and two cutaneous infections (1.1 %) occurred in 185 patients. Staphylococcus spp. could be detected in all cases. Six patients (3.2 %) suffered from single new-onset seizures and one patient (0.5 %) from a temporary hemiparesis.

(C) 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS All rights reserved “

(C) 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Genetic variability between populations of the orthopteran insect Tetrix tenuicornis, collected from six locations in Poland, GNS-1480 order was assayed by using the random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) method. The results show that insects in a population from metal polluted areas in Boleslaw have reduced genetic variability in contrast to five other populations located in unpolluted areas. The insects from polluted sites

also showed significant changes in elemental concentrations in nerve and muscle cells, measured by X-ray spectroscopy, when compared to insects of the same species collected from unpolluted sites.”
“Axons in the vertebrate nervous system only expand beyond similar to 1 mu m in diameter if they become myelinated. This expansion is due in large part to the accumulation of space-filling cytoskeletal polymers called neurofilaments, which are cargoes of axonal transport. One possible mechanism for this accumulation is a decrease in the rate of neurofilament transport. To test this hypothesis, we used a fluorescence photoactivation pulse-escape technique to compare the kinetics of neurofilament

transport in contiguous SRT2104 inhibitor myelinated and unmyelinated segments of axons in long-term myelinating cocultures established from the dorsal root ganglia of embryonic rats. The myelinated segments contained more neurofilaments and had a larger cross-sectional area than the contiguous unmyelinated segments, and this correlated with a local slowing of neurofilament

transport. By computational modeling of the pulse-escape kinetics, we found that this slowing of neurofilament transport could be explained by an increase in the proportion of the time that the neurofilaments spent pausing and that this increase in pausing was sufficient to explain the observed neurofilament accumulation. Thus we propose that myelinating cells PRT062607 concentration can regulate the neurofilament content and morphology of axons locally by modulating the kinetics of neurofilament transport.”
“Uptake of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) of nine vegetables including potherb mustard, bok choy, celery, spinach, cabbage, leaf of tube, lettuce, garlic, and edible amaranth in plastic film greenhouses with different plastic films, film thickness, greenhouse age, and greenhouse height was studied The results showed that the higher the DEHP content of film, the thicker the film, the lower the height of the greenhouse; and the younger the age of the greenhouse were, the higher the DEHP concentration of vegetables was The results afford significant information for production of safe vegetables with low level DEHP contamination”
“Insufficient feeder space for laying hens could increase competition at the feed trough, resulting in exclusion of low-ranking hens from the feeder.

10 to 2 17)) Asthma significantly increased the risk of Perthes’

10 to 2.17)). Asthma significantly increased the risk of Perthes’ disease (OR 1.44 (95% CI 1.17 to 1.76)), which remained after adjusting for oral/parenteral steroid use.\n\nPerthes’ disease has a significant association with congenital genitourinary and inguinal anomalies, suggesting that intra-uterine factors may be critical to causation. BAY 73-4506 Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor Other comorbid associations may offer insight to support or refute theories of pathogenesis.”
“Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) has been used with increasing frequency to treat congenital bone marrow failure syndrome (CBMFs) successfully. Decision to perform BMT, however, is difficult

in the case of comorbidity because of regimen-related toxicities. We describe here a child with CBMFs, severe cerebral palsy (CP) at Gross Motor Function Classification System level V and mental retardation (MR) who

was transfusion dependent despite various medications. She underwent BMT from an HLA-1 locus-mismatched unrelated donor. Although engraftment was successful, no neurological improvement was seen 5 years after BMT. While CBMFs patients who have CP and MR could undergo transplantation safely, they may not benefit neurologically from BMT.”
“Recent studies have demonstrated significant regional variability in the hemodynamic response function (HRF), highlighting the difficulty of correctly interpreting functional MRI (fMRI) data without proper modeling of the HRF. The focus of this study was to investigate the HRF variability within BKM120 chemical structure visual cortex. The HRF was estimated for a number of cortical visual areas by deconvolution signaling pathway of fMRI blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) responses to brief, large-field visual stimulation. Significant HRF variation was found across visual areas V1, V2, V3, V4, VO-1,2, V3AB, IPS-0,1,2,3, LO-1,2, and TO-1,2. Additionally, a subpopulation of voxels was identified that exhibited an impulse response waveform that was similar, but not identical, to an inverted version of the commonly described and modeled positive HRF. These

voxels were found within the retinotopic confines of the stimulus and were intermixed with those showing positive responses. The spatial distribution and variability of these HRFs suggest a vascular origin for the inverted waveforms. We suggest that the polarity of the HRF is a separate factor that is independent of the suppressive or activating nature of the underlying neuronal activity. Correctly modeling the polarity of the HRF allows one to recover an estimate of the underlying neuronal activity rather than discard the responses from these voxels on the assumption that they are artifactual. We demonstrate this approach on phase-encoded retinotopic mapping data as an example of the benefits of accurately modeling the HRF during the analysis of fMRI data. Hum Brain Mapp 35:5550-5564, 2014. (c) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

The percentages of patients screened generally increased over tim

The percentages of patients screened generally increased over time, although the percentages screened for diabetes and lipid abnormalities seemed to plateau or decrease after 2004. Even after diagnosis, many

obese patients are not receiving recommended laboratory screening tests. Screening increased during the study period, but remains less than ideal. Providers could improve care by more complete laboratory screening in patients diagnosed with obesity.”
“Thymic regrowth following chemotherapy has typical clinical and imaging manifestations that can be used to diagnose it prior to pathological diagnosis. We Selleck Bcl-2 inhibitor investigated methods for diagnosing thymic regrowth following chemotherapy with non-invasive methods.\n\nOur study included 26 children and adolescents with thymic regrowth following chemotherapy for malignant lymphoma. Computed tomography scans were routinely performed for follow-up observations. After the emergence of new mediastinal masses, patients either underwent Fluorine-18 uorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography scans to identify the characteristics of the mass, or were closely followed up.\n\nThymic regrowth occurred 1-12 months after the last chemotherapy (mean, 4 months). Computed tomography mostly

revealed diffusely enlarged thymic parenchymatous tissues that maintained normal thymic morphology. Computed tomography values were 36.72 +/- 9.48 Hu and increased by 5.56 +/- 2.62 Hu in contrast enhancement. The mean volume GDC-0994 in vitro of the mass was 19.2 cm(3). Twenty patients underwent positron emission tomography; among them, five (25%) click here showed no intake of Fluorine-18 uorodeoxyglucose in the anterior mediastinal mass, and 15 (75%) showed radioactivity distribution in the mass with a mean standardized uptake value of 2.7; the shape was regular and radioactivity distribution was uniform. The mean follow-up duration was 40 months and all patients achieved disease-free survival.\n\nIn the absence of pathological

diagnosis, thymic regrowth following chemotherapy can be diagnosed by clinical features combined with characteristic manifestations in computed tomography and positron emission tomography scans.”
“Recent advances in chemotherapy and radiation therapy in the treatment of malignant bone tumours as well as the consistent increase of revision arthroplasties have been followed by an increased use of megaprostheses. These large foreign bodies make infection a common and feared complication. Infection rates of 3 – 31% have been reported (average approx. 15%), often in conjunction with risk factors, e. g. the anatomic region (pelvis implants in particular), implant alloy, and underlying reason for implantation of a megaprosthesis.

(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2009;235:723-730)”


(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2009;235:723-730)”

An earlier meta-analysis MLN2238 ic50 of pediatric clinical trials indicated that lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) had a greater effect size than other stimulant medications. This work tested the hypothesis that the apparent increased efficacy was artifactual. Method: The authors assessed two potential artifacts: an unusually high precision of measurement and an unusually low placebo effect. The authors evaluated generalizability from children of adults. Results: The LDX effect sizes for children were significantly larger than the pooled stimulant effect sizes from studies using the same outcome measures. However, although no other individual stimulant study had an effect size greater than LDX, there was overlap between the 95% confidence intervals for some of these studies and the LDX study. The high

LDX effect sizes were not due measurement or placebo effect artifacts. LDX effect sizes for adults were not larger than the stimulant effect sizes from other studies. Conclusion: The high LDX effect size for children learn more could not attributed to measurement artifacts. The superiority of LDX in the pediatric clinical trial reflected the greater efficacy of amphetamine products, compared with methylphenidate products but required replication in children because (a) the results were based on only one trial of LDX in children, and

(b) the finding did not generalize to adults. (J. of Att. Dis. 2012; 16(2) 128-137)”
“Exposure to dogs in early infancy has been shown to reduce the risk of childhood allergic disease development, and dog ownership is associated with a distinct house dust microbial exposure. Here, we demonstrate, using murine models, that exposure of mice to dog-associated house dust protects against ovalbumin or cockroach allergen-mediated airway pathology. Protected animals exhibited significant reduction in the total number of airway T cells, down-regulation of Th2-related airway responses, as well as mucin secretion. Following dog-associated dust exposure, the cecal microbiome of protected animals was extensively restructured with significant enrichment of, amongst others, Lactobacillus johnsonii. Supplementation ATM inhibitor of wild-type animals with L. johnsonii protected them against both airway allergen challenge or infection with respiratory syncytial virus. L. johnsonii-mediated protection was associated with significant reductions in the total number and proportion of activated CD11c(+)/CD11b(+) and CD11c(+)/CD8(+) cells, as well as significantly reduced airway Th2 cytokine expression. Our results reveal that exposure to dog-associated household dust results in protection against airway allergen challenge and a distinct gastrointestinal microbiome composition. Moreover, the study identifies L.

This paper aims at testing the robustness of such framing effects

This paper aims at testing the robustness of such framing effects in the context of Provision Point Mechanisms (PPM). Our c-Met inhibitor approach is original in that it combines both framing and provision point dimensions by comparing maintaining (taking from the public good) and creating (giving to the public good) contexts using Provision Point experiments.

Consistent with previous findings, we find that individuals tend to be less cooperative in the maintaining frame than in the creating frame. Our results also show that the framing effects are stronger under a PPM than under a VCM and increase with the provision point level. These results may have important consequences for the management of environmental resources. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“gamma delta T cells are a remarkably prominent T-cell subset in swine with a high prevalence in blood. Phenotypic analyses in this study showed that CD2(-) gamma delta T cells in their vast majority had a CD8 alpha(-)SLA-DR(-)CD27(+) phenotype. CD2(+) gamma delta find more T cells dominated in spleen and

lymph nodes and had a more heterogeneous phenotype. CD8 alpha(+)SLA-DR(+)CD27(+)gamma delta T cells prevailed in blood, spleen and lymph nodes whereas in liver a CD8 alpha SLA-DR(+)CD27(-) phenotype Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor dominated, indicating an enrichment of terminally differentiated gamma delta T cells. gamma delta T cells were also investigated for their potential to produce IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha and IL-17A. Within CD2(+) T cells, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha single-producers as well as IFN-gamma/TNF-alpha double-producers dominated, which had a CD8 alpha(+)CD27(+)/(-)phenotype. IL-17A-producing gamma delta T cells were only found within CD2-gamma delta T cells, mostly co-produced TNF-alpha and had a rare CD8 alpha(+)CD27(+)/(-) phenotype. However, quantitatively TNF-alpha single-producers

strongly dominated within CD2(-) gamma delta T cells. In summary, our data identify CD2 and CD8 alpha as important molecules correlating with functional differentiation. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Numerous studies have addressed the significance of marginal and membranous umbilical cord (UC) insertion. Recent reports suggest that an eccentrically inserted UC may also be important. This case-control study assessed the potential relevance of peripheral insertion of UC (PIUC), defined as smaller than 3 cm from the nearest margin. Singleton placentas (n = 1418) submitted to the pathology department over an 18-month period were analyzed. Each case of PIUC (n = 119) was matched with a control placenta of the same gestational age.