A second-order central composite design (2(2)) with three central

A second-order central composite design (2(2)) with three central points and four star points was used to evaluate the mechanical properties (tensile strength, tensile strength at break, and elongation at break percentage), moisture

barrier, and microstructure of the films, and its potential as a pH indicator packaging. The films were prepared by the casting technique and conditioned under controlled conditions see more (75% relative humidity and 23 degrees C), at least 4 days before the analyses. The materials were exposed to different pH solutions (0, 2, 7, 10, and 14) and their color parameters (L*, a*, b*, and haze) were measured by transmittance. Grape and spinach extracts have affected the material characterization. Film properties (mechanical properties and moisture barrier) were strongly influenced by extract concentration presenting lower results than for the control. Films containing a higher concentration of grape extract presented a greater color change at different pH’s suggesting that anthocyanins are more effective

as pH indicators than chlorophyll or the mixture of both extracts. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 120: 1069-1079,2011″
“The establishment of an endosymbiotic relationship typically seems to be driven through complementation of the host’s limited metabolic capabilities by the biochemical versatility of the endosymbiont. The most

significant STI571 price examples of endosymbiosis are represented by the endosymbiotic acquisition of plastids and mitochondria, introducing photosynthesis and respiration to eukaryotes. However, there are numerous other endosymbioses that evolved more recently and repeatedly across the tree of life. Recent advances in genome sequencing technology have led to a better understanding of the physiological basis of many endosymbiotic associations. This review focuses on endosymbionts in protists (unicellular eukaryotes). Selected examples illustrate the incorporation of various new biochemical functions, such as photosynthesis, selleck chemicals nitrogen fixation and recycling, and methanogenesis, into protist hosts by prokaryotic endosymbionts. Furthermore, photosynthetic eukaryotic endosymbionts display a great diversity of modes of integration into different protist hosts.

In conclusion, endosymbiosis seems to represent a general evolutionary strategy of protists to acquire novel biochemical functions and is thus an important source of genetic innovation.”
“The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors on renal tubular apoptosis and also on expressions of endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthases (eNOS and iNOS) in the ipsilateral kidney after partial unilateral ureteral obstruction (PUUO) in a rat model. Forty Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups.

Experiments confirmed that initial glucose concentration affects

Experiments confirmed that initial glucose concentration affects cell growth, AR production and metabolites, significantly. The flux distribution at the key nodes of glucose-6-phosphate (G6P), pyruvate (PYR) and acetyl coenzyme-A (AcCoA) could be affected by changing the glucose concentration. Based on kinetic analysis of specific rates, the low-glucose concentration was better for both cell growth and AR production during the first 12 h. However, the high-glucose concentration was more favorable for AR formation after 18 h. Furthermore, different simplified feeding strategies were designed to achieve higher AR accumulation. The final AR concentration of 15.60 g L-1 was achieved when

an optimized constant-feeding strategy was used, which was 21.02 selleck chemicals % higher than batch

fermentation. This was the first time to investigate the regulation of the glucose metabolism of AR-producing B. subtilis.”
“Purpose The relevance of pancreatic trauma in severely injured patients within a large collective has not been thoroughly analyzed yet. This study aimed at assessing the prevalence of pancreatic trauma in relation to the outcome and the currently established algorithm of treatment.

Methods Some 51,425 patients from the Trauma Register of the German Society CH5424802 of Trauma Surgery (TR DGU) (1993-2009) were retrospectively analyzed. All patients with an “”injury severity score”" >= 16, direct admission to a trauma center and subsequent treatment for at least 3 days, age >= 16, and an abdominal injury [abbreviated injury scale (AIS) abdomen >= 2] were included. Patients with abdominal trauma AIS(abdomen) >= 2) were compared with patients with an additional pancreatic trauma (AIS(pancreas)2-5).

Results Of 51,425 patients, 9,268 (18%) had documented abdominal injuries. Two hundred eighty-four (3.1%) patients with abdominal injury additionally showed a pancreatic HDAC inhibitor injury (AIS(abdomen) >= 2, AIS(pancreas) 2-5) and were analyzed in dependency of the classification of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) organ severity score. AAST-pancreas:

II degrees, 1.9%; III degrees, 0.6%; IV degrees, 0.3%; and V degrees, 0.2%. Patients with leading pancreatic injury (grades IV and V) thereby showed a significant increase of mortality (IV degrees, 30.0% and V degrees, 33.3%) and an increase of the need for surgical intervention (IV degrees, 80.6% and V degrees : 81.8%).

Conclusions The results presented here show the prevalence and the outcome of pancreas injury in a large collective within the TR DGU for the first time. Based on the current literature and the findings, a treatment algorithm has been developed.”
“The activity of anaerobic sulfate reduction was studied using sulfate-reducing bacteria isolated from the water produced from a Brazilian oil reservoir.

COPD was present in 10% (n = 416) of patients Patients with COPD

COPD was present in 10% (n = 416) of patients. Patients with COPD had a higher prevalence of comorbidities and were less likely to receive a beta-blocker, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, or aldosterone

antagonist. On univariate analysis, COPD was associated with increased all-cause mortality (HR 1.41, 95% CI 1.18-1.67) and cardiovascular mortality/HF hospitalization (HR 1.29, 95% CI 1.11-1.49). After adjusting for potential confounders, the risk associated with COPD remained increased, but was not statistically significant.

Conclusion: The presence of COPD in HF patients is associated with an increased selleck burden of comorbidities, lower use of HF therapies, and a trend toward worse outcomes. These findings provide a starting point for prospective investigations of the treatment of HF comorbidities to reduce the high postdischarge event rates. CI Cardiac Fail 2012;18:515-523)”
“Reports have described a decrease in glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) associated with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate find more (TDF) use in HIV positive individuals. However, no study has examined renal function over a prolonged period in HIV/hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infected patients. We assessed the long-term durability and toxicity of TDF in a cohort of 39 e antigen (eAg) positive co-infected patients commenced on TDF 245 mg daily either in addition to or as part of standard antiretroviral therapy. Immunological

and virological parameters were followed to 260 weeks, with the median follow-up period being 251 weeks (range 69-290 weeks). eGFR was calculated using the Modification in Diet in Renal Disease

equation. On treatment at 260 weeks, 88% (14/16) had HIV viral load < 50 copies/mL, median CD4 count rose from 318 to 532 cells/mm(3), median alanine aminotransferase (ALT) fell from 61 IU/L to 42 IU/L, with 35% (7/20) having a normal ALT, median HBV DNA fell from 69 x 10(6) copies/mL to 500 copies/mL, with 75% (12/16) having an click here undetectable HBV DNA level and 55% (6/11) becoming eAg negative. Of those with detectable HBV DNA, none had TDF resistance mutations. The eGFR declined by 22.19 mL/min/1.73 mm(2) from baseline (P = 0.023) over this period, which was unaffected by protease inhibitor use, baseline CD4 count, ALT or HBV DNA level. Three patients discontinued TDF therapy due to renal dysfunction. In conclusion, TDF has sustained efficacy but is associated with a significant decline in eGFR. Further larger studies are required to clarify this observation.”
“ZnO is a wide gap semiconductor with interesting properties for applications in nanoelectronics as well as nanophotonics and can be used for ultraviolet nanolasers. The optical and electrical properties of ZnO are strongly influenced by residual stresses, defects, as well as microstructural changes. This work presents a detailed study of the residual stresses and the microstructure in three dimensional (3D) around a Vickers microindent placed on the prism plane of a ZnO single crystal.

‘ The present computational study demonstrates that the energetic

‘ The present computational study demonstrates that the energetic constraints on endurance runners are more subtle, and depend on several physiologic variables including the muscle mass distribution, liver and muscle glycogen densities, and running speed (exercise intensity as a fraction of aerobic capacity) of individual runners, in personalized but nevertheless

quantifiable and predictable ways. The analytic approach presented here is used to estimate the distance at which runners Ulixertinib price will exhaust their glycogen stores as a function of running intensity. In so doing it also provides a basis for guidelines ensuring the safety selleck kinase inhibitor and optimizing the performance of endurance runners, both by setting personally appropriate paces and by prescribing midrace fueling requirements for avoiding ‘the wall.’ The present analysis also sheds physiologically principled light on important standards in marathon

running that until now have remained empirically defined: The qualifying times for the Boston Marathon.”
“Magneto-optical materials have widespread applications in communication and optical devices. Besides existing applications such as optical diodes, untapped potential applications could be accessed should magneto-optical properties be improved such that smaller magnetic fields can be employed. Here we present an efficient method for fabricating oxide materials that possess excellent optical and magnetic properties-they are transparent to visible light yet have high magnetic susceptibility. Combined, these properties produce large Faraday rotations; the measured Verdet constant

is >-300 rad T(-1) m(-1) at 632.8 nm, a high value for a thick, optically transparent material. Because this Verdet constant is more than twice that of the state of the art material, these nanocrystalline oxides produce polarized light rotations with less than half the applied magnetic field necessary. BIX 01294 cost They are made by densifying rare earth nanocrystalline powder into dense, large-sized bodies using an electric current activated technique (sometimes known as spark plasma sintering). The processing temperature is optimized in order to achieve sufficient density without causing excessive phase changes that would destroy light transparency. This process produces materials quickly (<20 min), which, combined with high magneto-optical properties, promises less expensive, smaller, more portable magneto-optical devices. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3583654]“
“Polymicrobial oral biofilms attaching on tooth surfaces can trigger inflammatory responses by the neighbouring tooth-supporting periodontal tissues.

The following season, the player experienced a similar sudden tho

The following season, the player experienced a similar sudden thoracic pain episode during training. This time the chest pain

was right-sided. A new MRI of the thoracic spine showed unchanged findings. The initial rehabilitation was similar to the one used in the first episode. After 15 months with no symptoms during normal life the player was allowed to increase the intensity of training gradually and after 2 years the patient played soccer at elite level again. However, 3 years later the symptoms relapsed PF-562271 chemical structure and the player ended his career after another rehabilitation period.

Conclusion. In conclusion, it is important to consider thoracic disc herniation as acute chest pain in athletes and that the long-term prognosis of this entity is not always good.”
“A molecular construct of a spherical shape containing double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) in the center, coated by a spermidine-polyglucine coat, and carrying recombinant deltaferon-an analogue of recombinant interferon-gamma-has been designed. It is shown that deltaferon

in this construct retains its specific activity at a level CHIR98014 cell line of 9 x 10(4) U/mg. It was found that deltaferon and dsRNA in the construct were characterized by enhanced resistance to proteases (trypsin) and nucleases (E. coli ribonuclease) as compared to free deltaferon and dsRNA. An increased resistance of deltaferon in the construct to environmental temperature Bromosporine during storage was also demonstrated.”
“Trypanosoma evansi infections in domestic animals are characterized by anemia and thrombocytopenia. The cause of the platelets decrease is unknown, but researchers suggest that thrombocytopenia may result from damage of the bone marrow, reduced survival of platelets, auto-immune thrombocytopenia, disseminated intravascular coagulation and splenic sequestration. Some of these causes have already

been tested by our research group and found to be unrelated. Therefore, this study has the objective of testing the hypothesis that splenic sequestration might be responsible for thrombocytopenia in T. evansi-infected rats. A total of 28 rats assigned to four groups were used in the experiment. Group A rats were splenectomized and infected with T. evansi, group B rats were infected with T. evansi, group C rats were splenectomized, but not infected and group D rats were normal controls. Five days post-infection all rats were anesthetized and blood was collected in order to measure the number of circulating platelets, fibrinogen levels, prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). The spleens of groups B and D were weighed at necropsy. The infected animals (groups A and B) showed a significant reduction in platelets and increased PT and aPTT when compared to negative control groups (groups C and D). Animals from group A showed increased levels of fibrinogen. The mean weight of spleen differed between group B (2.

OBJECTIVES: To study the basic characteristics and treatment outc

OBJECTIVES: To study the basic characteristics and treatment outcomes of tuberculosis (TB) patients classified as ‘retreatment others’ and compare their treatment outcomes with smear-positive retreatment TB cases (relapse, failure, and treatment after default [TAD]).

DESIGN: Retrospective

record and report review of a patient cohort (n = 1237) registered as ‘retreatment others’ under the RNTCP from July to September 2008.

RESULTS: Of 1.009 patient records of ‘retreatment others’ reviewed, 674 (67%) were males, 892 (88%) were aged 15-64 years, 847 (84%) were pulmonary sputum smear-negative, 843 (84%) had unknown human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status and 55 (5.5%) were HIV-positive. All patients were treated with the RNTCP intermittent (thrice weekly) retreatment regimen. Eighty per cent were successfully treated (cured plus treatment completed). Successful outcomes were higher in females (84%), in patients with extra-pulmonary KPT-8602 chemical structure TB (87%) and in HIV-negative patients (87%). The treatment outcomes were significantly better for

‘retreatment others’ (P < 0.05) than among the sputum smear-positive retreatment cases (78% for relapses, 59% for failures and 73% for TAD).

CONCLUSIONS: ‘Retreatment others’ were predominantly sputum smear-negative TB, with significantly better treatment outcomes than among smear-positive retreatment patients. Future studies may assess the accuracy of the diagnoses buy IPI-145 and factors contributing to the occurrence of ‘retreatment others’.”
“A new compound, benzyl alcohol beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1 -> 6)-beta-D-(4-O-caffeoyl)glucopyranoside (1), was isolated from the seed of sunflower Batimastat mw (Helianthus annuus), together with eight known phenolic compounds: caffeic acid (2), methyl caffeoate (3), chlorogenic acid (4), 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid (5), 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid (6), methyl chlorogenate (7), 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (8), and eriodictyol 5-O-beta-D-glucoside (9). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic

methods and chemical evidence. The antioxidative effect of the phenolic constituents from the sunflower seeds was also evaluated based on the oxygen-radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and the fraction containing caffeic acid derivatives showed a high antioxidant potency. (C) 2013 Phytochemical Society of Europe. Published by Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.”
“SETTING: National Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory, Kuwait.

OBJECTIVE: To compare Genotype MTBDRplus (gMTBDR(+)), INNO-LiPA Rif.TB (INNO-LiPA), polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and DNA sequencing for detecting rifampicin (RMP) and/or isoniazid (INH) resistance-associated mutations in the rpoB hot-spot region (HSRrpoB), the katG codon 315 (katG315) and the inhA regulatory region (inhA-RR) among multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-TB) isolates.

DESIGN: A total of 82 MDR-TB and 43 pansusceptible M.

(C) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry”
“Objective: The study

(C) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry”
“Objective: The study was aimed to compare trace elements concentrations in women with and without severe pre-eclampsia (PE). Methods: A prospective

case-control study was conducted comparing 43 parturients with severe PE (who received magnesium p38 kinase assay sulfate [MgSO4]) and 80 healthy parturients and their newborns, matched for gestational age and mode of delivery. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) was used for the determination of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), selenium (Se) and magnesium (Mg) levels in maternal as well as arterial and venous umbilical cord serum. Results: Zn levels (mu g/L) were significantly higher in fetal arterial and venous blood of the PE group (947.3 +/- 42.5 vs. 543.1 +/- 226, 911.1 +/- 220.2 vs. 422.4 +/- 145, p < 0.001; respectively). Se levels (mu g/L) were significantly lower in maternal and fetal arterial and venous cord

blood of the PE group (98.6 +/- 24.2, 110.7 +/- 19.4, 82 +/- 17.8 vs. 111.6 +/- 17.6, 82.1 +/- 17.4 vs. 107.1 +/- 25.7, p < 0.001; respectively). Cu levels (mu g/L) were significantly lower in fetal arterial and venous cord blood (581.6 +/- 367.4 vs. 949 +/- 788.8, p = 0.022, 608.3 +/- 418.1 vs. 866.9 +/- 812.6, p = 0.001 respectively) but higher in maternal blood (2264.6 +/- 751.7 vs. 1048 +/- 851.1, p < 0.001). These differences www.selleckchem.com/products/cl-amidine.html remained significant while controlling for the mode of delivery. Mg levels were significantly higher in the PE group as compared with the control group. Conclusions: Severe PE is associated with abnormal concentrations of Zn, Cu and Se. Therefore,

trace elements may have a crucial role in the pathogenesis of severe PE.”
“Objective: The initial assessment of metabolic acidosis in subjects with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is arterial blood gas analysis. This process is expensive, painful, and technically difficult. Furthermore, blood gas analysis may not be available in some facilities, especially in developing countries where DKA-associated morbidity and mortality remain high. Therefore, GDC-0068 mouse we investigated the utility of venous bicarbonate concentration obtained from a basic metabolic panel in predicting arterial pH in adults with DKA.

Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of clinical and biochemical data of 396 adults admitted to 2 community teaching hospitals with DKA. We determined the correlation between arterial pH and venous serum parameters. Using multiple logistic regression, we obtained a predictive formula for arterial pH from serum venous bicarbonate level.

Results: The patient population was 59.0% male and had a mean age of 36.7 +/- 13.3 years. We derived that arterial pH = 6.97 + (0.

This implies

This implies https://www.selleckchem.com/products/3-methyladenine.html that the abrupt increase in roughness occurred at the same thickness-of about 4 nm-irrespective of the deposition rate. The result also indicated that the Delta phi deterioration began with the same thickness of about 4 nm. This “”critical”" thickness of about 4 nm might be related to the completion of the crystallization of the film. Further, deposition beyond the critical thickness, therefore, became merely a homoepitaxial deposition under the “”IBAD”" condition, which was far from optimal because of the ion bombardment and low temperature (no-heating), and thus Delta phi deteriorated. Based on these considerations, we propose an approach to attain a sharp texture in a

IBAD-MgO-based biaxial substrate; moreover, we demonstrated this approach using a two-step deposition process. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3565059]“
“The etiology of gallstone disease is multifactorial; supersaturation of bile with cholesterol is a primary cause for gallstone formation. In previous

studies, we found that fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) plays an important role in maintaining bile acid homeostasis by regulating the expression of cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), a rate-limiting enzyme for bile acid biosynthesis. The Gly388Arg (G-388R) polymorphism of FGFR4 affects stabilization and activation of FGFR4. Consequently, we studied the FGFR4 gene as a candidate gene for genetic susceptibility see more to gallstone disease. We found that overexpression of FGFR4, especially the G-388R mutant of FGFR4, inhibits luciferase activity of CYP7A1 reporter in HepG2 cells, indicating that the G-388R mutant of FGFR4 may have greater inhibitory activity against bile acid biosynthesis. To investigate the association of FGFR4 polymorphism with gallstone disease, 117 patients with gallstone disease and 457 controls were genotyped for FGFR4 polymorphism G-388R by PCR-RFLP. Although the incidence of gallstone disease was

not greater in patients with the FGFR4 RR genotype, the ratio of gallstone patients with acute cholecystitis in the FGFR4 RR genotype (42%) was significantly higher than that in other genotypes of FGFR4 (P = 0.019). In conclusion, the FGFR4 polymorphism is a genetic risk factor contributing find more to aggravation of gallstone disease.”
“Olive trees have been grown since the beginning of civilization, and the consumption of olives and olive products is increasing worldwide, due to their health benefits and organoleptic qualities. To meet the growing market for olives, commercial cultivation of this species is expanding from traditional areas to new regions. Although the Brazilian olive industry has just begun to be established, breeding programs are already developing cultivars that are more adapted to local conditions. We used 12 microsatellite markers to evaluate 60 olive accessions, including several cultivars that were developed in Brazil.

) A et C Riv in this

study The ball milled bamboo was

) A. et C. Riv in this

study. The ball milled bamboo was Elafibranor solubility dmso firstly dissolved in [Amim]Cl and regenerated with distilled water, followed by consecutively extraction with 0.5 M NaOH aqueous and 70% ethanol containing 1.0 M NaOH to obtain lignin, hemicelluloses and cellulose-rich fractions. A set of comparison experiment, which was carried out in a similar process aforementioned but excluding the [Amim]Cl dissolution, was firstly introduced to further investigate the fractionation process. The comparative study on chemical and physicochemical properties of the extracted fractions from two different processes was conducted by means of HPAEC, GPC, UV, XRD, quantitative C-13 NMR and HSQC spectra. It was shown that lignin (containing 2.19-3.83% polysaccharides, wt.%), hemicelluloses, and cellulose (containing 92.02-93.88% glucose, wt.%) fractions were effectively isolated, and alkaline extraction was confirmed to have the main contribution. The obtained lignin fractions were S-G-H type, and isolated hemicelluloses mainly consisted of 4-O-methyl-alpha-D-glucurono-alpha-L-arabino-beta-D-xylan. [Amim]Cl dissolution and regeneration was confirmed to Selleckchem Rigosertib decrease the total yield of fractionation. Moreover, the results illustrated that during [Amim]Cl

treatment lignin and hemicelluloses were slightly degraded and the side-chains of hemicelluloses were partially cleaved: besides, no significant impact of [Amim]Cl treatment on fractionation process could be observed. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Glycerolipid derivatives of 2′,3′-didehydro-3′-deoxythymidine

were synthesized, and their sensitivity to enzymatic and chemical hydrolysis was studied.”
“We describe our experience using an iodinated contrast solution to hydrodissect adjacent structures before percutaneous renal cryoablation. Hydrodissection was performed before cryoablation with placement of a 20-gauge, 15-cm introducer needle into the retroperitoneum under CT or ultrasonographic guidance followed by infusion of 5% dextrose in water and 2% iodinated contrast between JQ1 ic50 the kidney and the adjacent organ. Ten patients underwent hydrodissection with an iodinated contrast solution at our institution. The mean tumor size was 3.1 +/- 1.2 cm. The organs displaced included colon (n = 7), small bowel (n = 1), pancreas (n = 1), and in one case, both the colon and ureter were displaced. The average displacement of all organs from the kidney was 2.8 cm (range 2.2-3.5 cm). There were no complications and no injuries to any adjacent structures. The injection of iodinated contrast allows for safe mobilization and differentiation of adjacent structures from the renal tumor and parenchyma leading to potentially safer cryoablation.

By simulating the kyphotic collapse in a validated FEM, the mecha

By simulating the kyphotic collapse in a validated FEM, the mechanical basis of GM can be established.

Methods. PLX4032 order Sixty-three children with tuberculosis treated conservatively formed the clinical material. The progress of deformity and GM changes in the fusion mass and the kyphotic curve was documented. Defects simulating lesions of four levels of

severity (types A, B, C, and D) were created in a validated 3D FEM and subjected to load till restabilization occurred. The stresses at the end plates, discs, facet joints, and the points of contact were calculated.

Results. Regional Growth Acceleratory Phenomenon and favorable growth changes were found in type A collapse where the facets were intact. With increasing destruction, the forces in the facet capsules increased beyond 30 MPa predicting facet dislocations

in types B, C, and D collapse. As the contact stress on the VEP increased to 16.6 MPa (type B) and 40 MPa (type C), this was associated with growth suppression. Type D collapse involved facet dislocation at multiple levels leading to “”Buckling Collapse”". Acceleratory growth was found both in tension and compression phases proving that VEP growth followed principles of CGFRC rather than HVL.

Conclusion. This is the first study in the current literature to demonstrate that spinal growth follows CGFRC rather than HVL. This observation opens a potential window of opportunity to treat spinal deformities by mechanical

“Background: In resource-rich settings, universal adoption of a 4- rather than 6-week neonatal antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis regimen could signaling pathway reduce toxicity and results in cost savings, provided selleck chemicals prevention of mother-to-child transmission program effectiveness is not compromised.

Methods: Between January 1999 and December 2008, a 10-year study of the observational database of the Irish prevention of mother-to-child transmission program that uses a 4- rather than 6-week neonatal ARV prophylaxis regimen was undertaken. Maternal and infant data were analyzed to determine the vertical transmission rate (VTR) and infant outcome. Infants were categorized as uninfected if, off ARVs, they had 2 negative human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests, the second at 3 months of age or older.

Results: Between January 1999 and December 2008, there were 964 HIV-exposed live births. Excluding 7 early neonatal deaths, 4 weeks of ARV prophylaxis was prescribed for 957 infants: 61% received mono, 32% triple, and 7% dual therapy. Of 957 infants, 906 were uninfected, 10 infected, and 41 of indeterminate status. Twenty-four of the indeterminate status infants had at least one negative HIV PCR test at >= 6 weeks and 17 were lost to follow-up before 6 weeks of age. On the basis of 916 infants of known outcome, the VTR was 1.09% (95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.11).