A second-order central composite design (2(2)) with three central points and four star points was used to evaluate the mechanical properties (tensile strength, tensile strength at break, and elongation at break percentage), moisture
barrier, and microstructure of the films, and its potential as a pH indicator packaging. The films were prepared by the casting technique and conditioned under controlled conditions see more (75% relative humidity and 23 degrees C), at least 4 days before the analyses. The materials were exposed to different pH solutions (0, 2, 7, 10, and 14) and their color parameters (L*, a*, b*, and haze) were measured by transmittance. Grape and spinach extracts have affected the material characterization. Film properties (mechanical properties and moisture barrier) were strongly influenced by extract concentration presenting lower results than for the control. Films containing a higher concentration of grape extract presented a greater color change at different pH’s suggesting that anthocyanins are more effective
as pH indicators than chlorophyll or the mixture of both extracts. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 120: 1069-1079,2011″
“The establishment of an endosymbiotic relationship typically seems to be driven through complementation of the host’s limited metabolic capabilities by the biochemical versatility of the endosymbiont. The most
significant STI571 price examples of endosymbiosis are represented by the endosymbiotic acquisition of plastids and mitochondria, introducing photosynthesis and respiration to eukaryotes. However, there are numerous other endosymbioses that evolved more recently and repeatedly across the tree of life. Recent advances in genome sequencing technology have led to a better understanding of the physiological basis of many endosymbiotic associations. This review focuses on endosymbionts in protists (unicellular eukaryotes). Selected examples illustrate the incorporation of various new biochemical functions, such as photosynthesis, selleck chemicals nitrogen fixation and recycling, and methanogenesis, into protist hosts by prokaryotic endosymbionts. Furthermore, photosynthetic eukaryotic endosymbionts display a great diversity of modes of integration into different protist hosts.
In conclusion, endosymbiosis seems to represent a general evolutionary strategy of protists to acquire novel biochemical functions and is thus an important source of genetic innovation.”
“The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors on renal tubular apoptosis and also on expressions of endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthases (eNOS and iNOS) in the ipsilateral kidney after partial unilateral ureteral obstruction (PUUO) in a rat model. Forty Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups.