Methods: Serum bone turnover markers (BTMs), bone specific al

\n\nMethods: Serum bone turnover markers (BTMs), bone specific alkaline phosphatase

(BALP), type 1 procollagen SN-38 mw N-terminal propeptide (P1NP), osteocalcin (OC), and the beta-isomerized C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (beta-CTx) were measured in 50 adult male DTC patients after 4-week suspension of levothyroxine replacement therapy and 40 matched euthyroid controls. Relationships between parameters of thyroid function (free triiodothyronine, FT3; free thyroxine, FT4; thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH) and the BTMs were studied.\n\nResults: The patients had significantly decreased OC (-37.6%, P<0.001) and beta-CTx (-35.5%, P<0.001) compared with the controls, showing FT3 as the independent

risk factor for OC (R(2)=0.425, P<0.001) and beta-CTx (R(2)=0.124, P<0.001). Partial correlation analysis showed that only FT3 was significantly correlated with OC after controlling FT4 and TSH (r=0.362, P=0.001).\n\nConclusions: DTC patients have moderately decreased bone turnover after short-term suspension of thyroxine suppressive therapy, Selleckchem CFTRinh-172 with serum FT3 concentration as the predominant and independent risk factor. (Clin. Lab. 2010;56:87-93)”
“The use of low-cost, potential, locally available and eco-friendly adsorbents has been investigated as an ideal alternative to the current expensive methods of removing dyes from wastewater. Sequential Plackett-Burman design (PBD) model was used to screen out the most significant factors and Box-Behnken design (BBD) GSK2126458 in vitro to study the combined effects of interaction between the variables selected by PBD. Second-order polynomial regression model was applied which was statistically validated using analysis of variance. Maximum decolorization 96.25% obtained at pH 6.88, dye concentration 188.01 mg/L and adsorbent dose 0.49 g (dead yeast cells) after 60 min. Kinetic studies showed that the adsorption follows pseudo-second order kinetics and maximum 61% desorption obtained. Negative values of Gibbs free energy change (Delta G(o)) showed that

the adsorption was feasible and spontaneous and negative values of enthalpy change (Delta H-o) confirmed exothermic adsorption. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“A first study on the use of Chilean natural zeolite of different particle sizes (0.5, 1 and 2 mm in diameter) in laboratory-scale batch denitrificant reactors was carried out with the aim of assessing the microbial communities adhered to this material. Molecular techniques such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprints revealed a high microbial diversity with a strong presence of Gammaproteobacteria (70% of the total microorganisms) in reactors with zeolite 0.5 mm in diameter. Archaea were only detected in the reactors with zeolite 1 mm in diameter.

We all know that sufficient drainage is very important for the tr

We all know that sufficient drainage is very important for the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Chronic maxillary sinusitis (CMS) is the high incidence of CRS. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of quadrupedal head position in patients with CMS.\n\nMethods: One hundred six patients diagnosed with CMS were enrolled. Patients were randomized to quadrupedal head position group and non-quadrupedal head position group for 6 weeks of treatment. Treatment outcomes were measured using 1) Lund-Mackay scoring system of pre-and post-treatment

computer tomography (CT); and 2) Sinonasal Quality-of-Life (QoL) Survey completed at baseline and 6 weeks of therapy.\n\nResults: There were statistically significant differences in QoL scores and CT scores Ulixertinib between quadrupedal head position group and non-quadrupedal head position group. The quadrupedal head position group had much more improvements in QoL scores and CT scores than that of non-quadrupedal head position group. One patient in the quadrupedal head position group required functional endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) due to persistent symptoms, and nine patients in non-quadrupedal head position group needed ESS. There were less patients that required ESS in the quadrupedal head position

group than in the non-quadrupedal head position group.\n\nConclusions: The improvements of QoL scores and CT scores were significantly better in the quadrupedal head position group than that in the non-quadrupedal head position Ruboxistaurin cost group. Quadrupedal head position can be valuable adjuvant therapy for patients with CMS. (C)

2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Objectives: We assessed the likelihood of arytenoid dislocation during intubation through the application of controlled force.\n\nMethods: Six cadaveric human larynges were mounted in an apparatus for simulating forcible collision with the arytenoid complexes. An endotracheal tube tip probe (ETTP) was Used to push one arytenoid complex, and a non-slip probe (NSP) was tested on the other. Increasing pressure was applied until the NSC23766 mw probes either slipped or reached 5 kg of force. Dissection was then performed to assess the integrity of the cricoarytenoid ligament. The forces obtained by pushing an endotracheal tube against an electronic balance were measured to estimate the maximal possible intubating force.\n\nResults: None of the ETTP or NSP trials disrupted the cricoarytenoid joint ligaments, and the joint never appeared to be dislocated. The mean maximal forces were 1.8 kg for the ETTP (after which, slippage consistently occurred) and 4.7 kg for the NSP. The mean maximal forces from an endotracheal tube pushed against a scale were 1.5 kg (without stylet) and 4.6 kg (with stylet).

These results suggest that the N terminus of YscF can function to

These results suggest that the N terminus of YscF can function to decrease cytokine induction, perhaps contributing to a favorable immune environment leading to survival of Y. pestis within the eukaryotic host.”
“Irreversible end-stage organ failure represents

one of the leading causes of death, and organ transplantation is currently the only curative solution. Donor organ shortage and adverse effects of immunosuppressive regimens are the major limiting factors for this definitive practice. Recent developments in bioengineering and regenerative medicine could provide a solid base for the future creation of implantable, bioengineered organs. Whole-organ detergent-perfusion selleck kinase inhibitor protocols permit clinicians to gently remove all the cells and at the same time preserve the natural three-dimensional framework of the native organ. Several decellularized organs, including liver, kidney, and pancreas, have been created as a platform

for further successful seeding. These scaffolds are Screening Library order composed of organ-specific extracellular matrix that contains growth factors important for cellular growth and function. Macro- and microvascular tree is entirely maintained and can be incorporated in the recipient’s vascular system after the implant. This review will emphasize recent achievements in the whole-organ scaffolds and at the same time underline complications that the scientific community has to resolve before reaching a functional bioengineered organ.”
“Apoptosis induction by BH3 mimetics is a therapeutic strategy for human cancer. These mimetics exert single- agent activity in cells “primed” for cell death. Primed cells are dependent upon antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins for survival and are characterized by the ability of the BH3 mimetic to induce cytochrome c release from their isolated mitochondria. Our aim was to examine the single- agent activity of obatoclax, a BH3 mimetic in cholangiocarcinoma cell lines. In clonogenic assays, inhibition of colony

formation was observed by obatoclax treatment. Despite single- agent activity by obatoclax, the mitochondria from these cells did not release cytochrome c after incubation with this BH3 mimetic. However, immunofluorescence and cell fractionation studies identified Bax activation and translocation to mitochondria PRT062607 mw after treatment with obatoclax. shRNA targeted knockdown of Bax doubled the IC(50) for obatoclax but did not abrogate its cytotoxicity, whereas knockdown of Bak did not alter the IC(50). In a cell-free system, obatoclax induced an activating conformational change of Bax, which was attenuated by a site-directed mutagenesis of a previously identified protein activation site. Finally, the drug also elicited a significant in vivo response in a rodent model of this disease. In conclusion, single- agent obatoclax treatment results in Bax activation, which contributes, in part, to cell death in cholangiocarcinoma cells.

(Curr Ther Res Clin Exp, 2009;70:421-438) (C) 2009 Excerpta Medic

(Curr Ther Res Clin Exp, 2009;70:421-438) (C) 2009 Excerpta Medica Inc.”
“Background: Ischaemic stroke is a common complication of atrial fibrillation (AF). Cardiology societies

recommend assessing the risk of ischaemic stroke and using adequate prevention in patients with AF. Currently, oral anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs are the most commonly used methods of stroke prevention. Left atrial appendage (LAA) is thought to be the main source of thrombi in patients with AF. LAA closure procedures that have been recently introduced into the clinical practice are an alternative method of stroke prevention in patients with contraindications to oral anticoagulants or with a high risk of bleeding. Two systems of percutaneous LAA closure are currently available, the Watchman plug and the Amplatzer Cardiac Plug, but PKC412 experience with these procedures is still very limited.\n\nAim: To provide early results regarding safety and feasibility of percutaneous LAA closure with the

Amplatzer Cardiac Plug in patients with AF and multiple comorbidities resulting in a high risk of stroke and bleeding complications.\n\nMethods: Twenty one patients with AF, at least 2 points in the CHADS2/CHA2DS2VASc score and a high risk of bleeding as assessed by the HAS-BLED score (at least 3 points) underwent percutaneous Amplatzer Tariquidar inhibitor Cardiac Plug SB273005 order implantation. Patients with less than 3 points in the HAS-BLED score were also included in the study if they had contraindications

to oral anticoagulants (e.g. previous haemorrhage, recurrent bleeding, epidermolysis) or suffered from recurrent ischaemic stroke despite anticoagulant treatment. The Amplatzer Cardiac Plug was implanted using the standard technique under fluoroscopic and echocardiographic guidance.\n\nResults: Percutaneous LAA closure with the Amplatzer Cardiac Plug was performed in a group of patients with many comorbidities who had a high risk of ischaemic stroke (CHA2DS2VASc score 4.43 +/- 1.4 points) as well as a high risk of bleeding (HAS-BLED score 3.0 +/- 0.7 points). LAA occlusion was successfully performed in 20 (95.2%) patients. A serious periprocedural complication (cardiac tamponade requiring pericardiocentesis) occurred in 1 (4.76%) patient.\n\nConclusions: Successful LAA occlusion is feasible in a vast majority of patients undergoing this procedure. The rate of serious periprocedural complications is relatively low. LAA occlusion is justified in a group of patients with a high risk of ischaemic stroke and a high risk of bleeding or contraindications to oral anticoagulants.”
“At present, the acute toxicity of chemicals to fish is most commonly estimated by means of a short-term test on juvenile or adult animals (OECD TG 203).

DNA fingerprinting using the species-specific probe Cd25 and sequ

DNA fingerprinting using the species-specific probe Cd25 and sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal gene cluster previously showed that C. dubliniensis is comprised of three major clades comprising SNS-032 research buy four distinct ITS genotypes. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) has been shown to be very useful for investigating the epidemiology and population biology of C. albicans and has identified many distinct major

and minor clades. In the present study, we used MLST to investigate the population structure of C. dubliniensis for the first time. Combinations of 10 loci previously tested for MLST analysis of C. albicans were assessed for their discriminatory ability with 50 epidemiologically unrelated C. dubliniensis isolates from diverse geographic locations, including representative isolates from the previously identified three Cd25-defined major clades and the four ITS genotypes. Dendrograms created by using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages that were generated using the data from all 10 loci revealed a population structure which supports that previously suggested by DNA fingerprinting and ITS genotyping. The MLST data revealed significantly less divergence within the C. dubliniensis population examined than within the C.

albicans population. These findings show that MLST can be used as an informative alternative strategy for investigating the population structure of C. dubliniensis. MLN4924 manufacturer On the basis of the highest number of genotypes per variable base, we recommend the following eight loci for MLST analysis of C. dubliniensis: CdAAT1b, CdACC1, CdADP1, CdMPIb, CdRPN2, CdSYA1, exCdVPS13, and exCdZWF1b, where “Cd” indicates C. dubliniensis and “ex” indicates extended sequence.”
“Constitutional self-instructed membranes were developed and used for mimicking the adaptive selleck kinase inhibitor structural functionality of natural ion-channel systems. These membranes are based on dynamic hybrid

materials in which the functional self-organized macrocycles are reversibly connected with the inorganic silica through hydrophobic noncovalent interactions. Supramolecular columnar ion-channel architectures can be generated by reversible confinement within scaffolding hydrophobic silica mesopores. They can be structurally determined by using X-ray diffraction and morphologically tuned by alkali-salts templating. From the conceptual point of view, these membranes express a synergistic adaptive behavior: the simultaneous binding of the fittest cation and its anion would be a case of “homotropic allosteric interactions,” because in time it increases the transport efficiency of the pore-contained superstructures by a selective evolving process toward the fittest ion channel.

The angiography suite and personnel costs constitute 25% a the to

The angiography suite and personnel costs constitute 25% a the total, and recovery costs constitute 13%. This finding is a change from previous reports in which angiography suite operation was the greatest contributor to cost. Understanding real cost

is an essential step in determining the value of the procedure.”
“Male rats allowed to copulate until reaching sexual exhaustion exhibit a long-lasting sexual behavior inhibition (around 72 h) that can be reversed by systemic opioid receptor antagonist administration. Copulation activates the mesolimbic dopaminergic system (MLS) and promotes endogenous opioid release. In addition, endogenous opioids, acting at the ventral tegmental area (VTA), modulate the activity of the MLS. We hypothesized that endogenous

opioids participate in the sexual exhaustion phenomenon by interacting with VTA opioid receptors and consequently, LB-100 mouse its reversal by opioid antagonists could be exerted at those receptors. In this study we determined the effects of intra-VTA infusion of different doses of the non-specific opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone (0.1-1.0 mu g/rat) on the already established sexual behavior inhibition of sexually exhausted male rats. To elucidate the possible involvement of VTA delta-opioid receptors in the naltrexone-mediated reversal of sexual exhaustion, the effects of different Tozasertib price doses of the selective delta-opioid receptor antagonist, naltrindole (0.03-1.0 mu g/rat) were also tested. Results showed that intra-VTA injection of 0.3 mu g naltrexone reversed the sexual inhibition of sexually exhausted rats, evidenced by an increased percentage of animals capable of showing two successive ejaculations. Intra-VTA infused naltrindole did not reverse sexual exhaustion at any dose. It is concluded that the MLS is involved in the reversal of

sexual exhaustion induced by systemic naltrexone, and that mu-, but not delta-opioid receptors participate in this effect. Intra-VrA naltrexone infusion to sexually experienced male rats had an inhibitory effect on sexual activity. The opposite effects of intra-VTA naltrexone on male rat sexual behavior expression of sexually experienced and sexually exhausted rats is discussed (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Behavior evaluations are widely used by animal shelters and other organizations MK-2206 order that rehome dogs. The dog-to-dog subtest is a common feature of most canine behavior evaluations. The use of model devices such as a stuffed dog during this subtest could be convenient for shelters and increase safety. However, there is little research indicating if a fake dog can be reliably used instead of a live dog. In this study, the consistency of shelter dogs’ reactions toward a fake and a real dog during the dog-to-dog subtest was investigated. Forty-five shelter dogs were evaluated using two different stimulus conditions.

This unspecific pre-activation of intracellular pathways represen

This unspecific pre-activation of intracellular pathways represents the molecular basis of VEGF resistance in diabetes mellitus.”
“Activation of innate and acquired immune responses, which can be induced by infection, inflammation, or tissue injury, may impact

the development BEZ235 datasheet of autoimmunity. Although stimulation of cells by double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) has been shown to activate immune responses, the role of self-genomic DNA fragments released in the context of sterile cellular injury is not well understood. Using cultured thyroid cells, we show that cell injury prompts the release of genomic DNA into the cytosol, which is associated with the production of type I interferons, inflammatory cytokines, and chemokines. Molecules necessary for antigen processing and presentation to lymphocytes are also induced in thyroid cells by injury. dsDNA strongly suppressed the expression of sodium/iodide symporter and radio-iodine uptake. To identify molecules responsible for sensing cytosolic dsDNA, we directly identified the cellular proteins that bound a dsDNA Sepharose column by mass spectrometry. Our analysis identified histone H2B, which was previously demonstrated to be an essential factor that

mediates the activation of innate check details immunity induced by dsDNA. Knock down of histone H2B using specific small interfering RNA abolished cell injury-induced innate immune activation and increased sodium/iodide symporter expression. These results indicate that genomic DNA fragments released by cell injury are recognized by extrachromosomal histone H2B, which results in the activation of genes involved in both innate and acquired immune responses in thyroid cells and suppression of thyroid function. These results suggest that sterile thyroid injury, in the absence of infection, may be sufficient to trigger autoimmune reaction and to induce thyroid dysfunction. (Endocrinology

152: 1702-1712, 2011)”
“Two imidazolate-metal based rhombic dodecahedra (termed MOP-100 and MOP-101) were designed and prepared from [(NH(3))(4)Pd(NO(3))(2)] SNS-032 inhibitor and hydrogen tetrakis(1-imidazolyl)borate or hydrogen tetrakis(4-methyl-1-imidazolyl)borate in a concentrated ammonium hydroxide solution at 85 degrees C. Both rhombic dodecahedra show unusual chemical stability in acidic and basic solutions as well as common organic solvents. Permanent porosity was examined by gas adsorption studies. From the N(2), isotherm for MOP-101, the Langmuir and BET surface areas of MOP-101 were calculated to be 350 and 280 m(2) g(-1), respectively. Anion exchange experiments confirmed the internal cavities of such polyhedra are accessible.

Conclusions: A bacterial consortium

\n\nConclusions: A bacterial consortium PU-H71 mouse capable of complete LAS degradation was isolated from the Rio de la Plata and adjacent waters. This consortium was more efficient for LAS degradation than individual cultures, and was sensitive to high LAS concentrations.\n\nSignificance and Impact of the Study: The autochthonous consortium with high effectiveness on LAS biodegradation is a useful tool for LAS depletion from these polluted ecosystems.”
“The collagenase matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) plays an important role in the

destruction of cartilage in arthritic joints. MMP-13 expression is strongly up-regulated in arthritis, largely because of stimulation by inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1 beta. Treatment of chondrocytes with IL-1 beta induces transcription of MMP-13 in vitro. IL-1 beta signaling converges upon the activator protein-1 transcription factors, which have been shown to be required for IL-1 beta-induced MMP-13 gene expression. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), we detected activator protein-1 binding within an evolutionarily conserved DNA sequence similar to 20 kb 5′ relative to the MMP-13 transcription start site (TSS). Also using ChIP, we detected histone modifications and binding of RNA polymerase II within this conserved region, all

of which are consistent with transcriptional activation. Chromosome conformation capture indicates that chromosome looping brings this region in close proximity with the MMP-13 TSS. Finally, a luciferase reporter construct driven by a component of the conserved

region demonstrated an expression pattern similar to that of endogenous MMP-13. These data suggest that a conserved region at 20 kb upstream from the MMP-13 TSS includes a distal transcriptional response element of MMP-13, click here which contributes to MMP-13 gene expression.”
“The objective of this study was to compare the mRNA expression of host genes involved in type-I interferon-induced antiviral state (IFN-alpha, IFN-beta, Mx-1, PKR, OAS-1 and ISG-15), and apoptosis (caspase-3, -8, and -9), after experimental infection of beef calves with low or high virulence noncytopathic (ncp) bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strains. Thirty BVDV-naive, clinically normal calves were randomly assigned to three groups. Calves were intranasally inoculated with low (LV; n =10, strain SD-1) or high (HV; n = 10, strain 1373) virulence ncp BVDV or BVDV-free cell culture medium (Control, n =10). Quantitative RT-PCR was used to determine the target gene expression in tracheo-bronchial lymph nodes and spleen 5 days after infection. Interferon-alpha and -beta mRNA levels were up-regulated in trachea-bronchial lymph nodes (P<0.05) in the HV group, but not in the LV group, compared with the control group. There was an up-regulation of type I interferon-induced genes in spleen and tracheo-bronchial lymph nodes of HV and LV groups, compared with the control group (P<0.01).

This study provides further clarification of the brain systems su

This study provides further clarification of the brain systems supporting DRD in general and in relation to AUDs.”
“Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 (AKT1), mouse double

minute 2 (MDM2) and p53 play important roles in the development of cancer. We examined whether the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the PTEN, AKT1, MDM2 and p53 genes were related to the risk and severity of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in the Chinese population. Seven SNPs [p53 rs1042522, PTEN rs11202592, AKT1 SNP1-5 (rs3803300, rs1130214, selleck inhibitor rs3730358, rs1130233 and rs2494732)] were genotyped in 593 NPC cases and 480 controls by PCR direct sequencing GDC 973 or PCR-RFLP analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). None of the polymorphisms alone was associated with the

risk or severity of NPC. However, haplotype analyses indicated that a two-SNP core haplotype (SNP4-5, AA) in AKT1 was associated with a significantly increased susceptibility to NPC risk (adjusted OR = 3.87, 95% CI = 1.96-7.65; P smaller than 0.001). Furthermore, there was a significantly increased risk of NPC associated with the combined risk genotypes (i.e., p53 rs1042522 Arg/Pro + Pro/Pro, MDM2

rs2279244 G/T + G/G, PTEN rs11202592 C/C, AKT1 rs1130233 A/A). Compared with the low-risk group (0-2 combined risk genotypes), the high-risk group (3-4 combined risk genotypes) was associated with a significantly increased susceptibility to NPC risk (adjusted OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.12-2.50; P = 0.012). Our results suggest that genetic variants in the PTEN, AKT1, MDM2 and p53 tumor suppressor-oncoprotein network may play roles in mediating the susceptibility to NPC in Chinese populations.”
“Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder BAY 73-4506 Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor involving the selective loss of spinal cord motor neurons. Excitotoxicity mediated by glutamate has been implicated as a cause of this progressive degeneration. In this study we examined two types of receptors, the excitatory alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) and inhibitory cannabinoid receptor (CB1) with respect to their localization and total expression in spinal cord motor neurons. AMPAR and CB1 represent major excitatory and inhibitory transmission input, respectively, and their expression levels on the plasma membrane have direct relevance to the vulnerability of the motor neurons to glutamatergic excitotoxicity.

Quality assessment was mentioned in 28 abstracts ( 43%); with a m

Quality assessment was mentioned in 28 abstracts ( 43%); with a majority ( n = 21)

mentioning it in the methods section. In only 5 abstracts ( 8%) were results of quality assessment incorporated in the conclusions. Thirteen reviews ( 20%) presented results of quality assessment HDAC inhibitor in the main text only, without further discussion. Forty-seven reviews ( 72%) discussed results of quality assessment; the most frequent form was as limitations in assessing quality ( n = 28). Only 6 reviews ( 9%) further linked the results of quality assessment to their conclusions, 3 of which did not conduct a meta-analysis due to limitations in the quality of included studies. In the reviews with a meta-analysis, 19 ( 36%) incorporated quality in the analysis. Eight reported Nepicastat molecular weight significant effects of quality on the pooled estimates; in none of them these effects were factored in the conclusions. Conclusion: While almost all recent diagnostic accuracy reviews evaluate the quality of included studies, very few consider results of quality assessment when drawing conclusions. The practice of reporting systematic reviews of test accuracy should improve if readers not only want to be informed about the limitations in the available evidence, but also on the associated implications for the performance of the evaluated tests.”
“Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare disorder characterized by abnormal

accumulation of a lipoproteinaceous material in the alveoli, which may lead to respiratory failure eFT-508 and has an associated high risk for

infections. The mainstay treatment for PAP is whole lung lavage.\n\nA pregnant woman, previously diagnosed with primary PAP, the most common form of PAP, was admitted with dyspnea and worsening respiratory function. In one month period, a whole-lung bronchopulmonary lavage was performed twice, with clinical and functional improvement. Pregnancy was carried to term and a healthy baby was delivered.\n\nThe mechanisms of respiratory impairment are discussed as well as treatment options and response. (C) 2011 Published by Elsevier Espana, S.L. on behalf of Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia.”
“Eleven miniature dachshunds with a herniated intervertebral disc were examined by CT, first before and then after contrast enhancement of the subarachnoid space. The images were classified into three grades by three veterinarians. In four cases, lesions observed on the scans obtained after contrast enhancement had not been observed on the preliminary scans and in one case a lesion observed on the preliminary scan was not observed on the scan obtained after contrast enhancement. Hemilaminectomies were performed on the basis of the enhanced CT results, and a clinical improvement was observed in each of the dogs. Calcification was detected in all the samples of herniated intervertebral disc material.