However, the CCS guidelines do not recommend that the use of Clas

However, the CCS guidelines do not recommend that the use of Class IC drugs or sotalol be restricted in the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy alone. All the guidelines have incorporated dronedarone into their recommendations of antiarrhythmic drug therapy for maintenance of sinus rhythm. However, the CCS guidelines do not make a specific recommendation that the use of dronedarone is reasonable to decrease the risk of hospitalization for cardiovascular causes in patients with AF. The ACCF/AHA/HRS update makes a strong recommendation for

catheter ablation in patients selleck chemicals llc with paroxysmal AF who have failed a single anti-arrhythmic drug whereas the CCS and ESC guidelines make this a conditional recommendation. The CCS guidelines are the only guidelines at present that recommend dabigitran for prevention of stroke in high risk patients and suggest that dabigatran is preferred to warfarin for stroke prevention in most patient groups.”
“Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS) is recently described disorder with typical radiological findings in the posterior regions of the cerebral hemisphere and cerebellum. Its clinical symptoms include headache, decreased alertness, mental abnormalities, such as confusion,

diminished spontaneity of speech, and changed behavior ranging from drowsiness to stupor, seizures, vomiting and abnormalities of visual perception like cortical blindness. RPLS is caused by various heterogeneous factors, the commonest being hypertension, followed by non-hypertensive causes such as ZD1839 eclampsia, renal diseases and immunosuppressive therapy. We presented nine patients with RPLS who had primary diagnoses such as QNZ molecular weight acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis, idiopathic hypertension, the performing of intravenous immunoglobulin for infection with crescentic glomerulonephritis, erythrocyte transfusion for severe iron deficiency, l-asparaginase treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia and performing of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor for ulcerative colitis due to neutropenia. Early recognition

of RPLS as complication during different diseases and therapy in childhood may facilitate precise diagnosis and appropriate treatment.”
“The primary progressive aphasias (PPA) are a group of clinically, genetically and pathologically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorders caused by FTLD-tau, FTLD-TDP or Alzheimer’s disease pathology. Clinically, three subtypes are recognized, the semantic, logopenic and nonfluent variants but there remains ongoing discussions over how the clinical subtypes should be dissected. This review looks at the genetic and pathological basis of PPA and argues that with the advent of clinical trials in PPA, establishing the underlying pathology accurately during life will become increasingly important. Current and future biomarkers that may help make a pathological diagnosis in life, i.e.

The magnetic measurements at room temperature, using a vibrating

The magnetic measurements at room temperature, using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and the obtained magnetic parameters revealed that the investigated nanocomposites belong to a category of magnetically soft materials that find widespread applications in contemporary fine technologies. Optical absorption spectra were measured in the ultraviolet (UV)visible region and the fundamental MRT67307 cost absorption edge E(a), the energy gap E(g) and width of the tail of localized states E(e) were evaluated and discussed in terms of the solid band theory. The monotonic increase of these

optical parameters with the dopant concentration may be attributed to probable segregation effects occurring in the amorphous host matrix. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 122: 2121-2129, 2011″

scattering and its temperature dependencies have been used to investigate lattice dynamic BMS-754807 mouse properties of beta-FeSi2 thin films epitaxially grown on Si (111) substrates by sputtering at elevated temperatures. A linear correlation between the blueshift in phonon energies and the lattice expansions in the growth direction of beta-FeSi2 is observed. The shifting rate of the Raman mode at 248 cm(-1) (13.6 cm(-1)/%) is much larger than that of the mode at 194 cm(-1) (8.4 cm(-1)/%) due to the involvement of radial bonding vibrations between Fe and Si atoms. Temperature-dependent Raman scattering, which is hitherto unknown for beta-FeSi2, reveals an extremely small phonon line width broadening in the range of 80-480 K. It is revealed that the broadening in the phonon line widths contributed by phonon-phonon scattering is weaker and is masked by phonon-hole couplings in beta-FeSi2, while the effect of phonon-hole coupling on phonon line width broadening is saturated at the studied temperatures due to the high impurity densities. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3573671]“
“Diabetes is characterized by the loss, or gradual dysfunction, of insulin-producing pancreatic. beta-cell. Although. beta-cells can replicate in younger adults, the available diabetes therapies do not

specifically target. beta-cell regeneration. Novel approaches are needed to discover new therapeutics and to understand the contributions of endocrine AZD8186 inhibitor progenitors and. beta-cell regeneration during islet expansion. Here, we show that the regulators of G protein signaling Rgs16 and Rgs8 are expressed in pancreatic progenitor and endocrine cells during development, then extinguished in adults, but reactivated in models of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Exendin-4, a glucagon-like peptide 1 (Glp-1)/ incretin mimetic that stimulates. beta-cell expansion, insulin secretion and normalization of blood glucose levels in diabetics, also promoted re-expression of Rgs16::GFP within a few days in pancreatic ductalassociated cells and islet. beta-cells. These findings show that Rgs16::GFP and Rgs8::GFP are novel and early reporters of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-stimulated.

Material and methods: Ninety patients with ICH (clinical systolic

Material and methods: Ninety patients with ICH (clinical systolic blood pressure [SBR] superior or equal to [>=] 140 and/or diastolic

learn more blood pressure [DBP]> = 90 mm Hg) and ambulatory daytime SBP and DBP <135/85 min Hg were enrolled In this study.

Patients with ICH were classified into two groups as dippers (13 males, 34 females) and nondippers (7 males, 36 females). Nondippers were defined by a reduction in mean blood pressure of less than 10% from day (06:00-24:00) to night (24:00-6:00); and the rest of the patients were classified as dippers. Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and early diastolic velocity/late (diastolic velocity (e/a) were determined by echocardiography; intima-media thickness (IMT) and compliance of the carotid artery (distensibility coefficient [DC] and compliance coefficient [CC]) were measured by NADPH-oxidase inhibitor ultrasound. Renal function was measured by glomerular filtrate rate (GFR) and

urinary albumin excretion (UAF). Retinal changes were determined by fundoscopy.

Results: There was no difference between the demographic and biochemical characteristics of the two groups. IMT was significantly higher in nondippers (p < 0.005). The nondippers had significantly lower levels of DC (p < 0.005) and CC (P < 0.0005). LVMI was above normal in both groups with no significant difference. The c/a ratio, although normal ill both groups, differed significantly between them (p < 0.000.5). IITRP microalbuminuria and GFR <90 mL/min/1.73 m(2) were more frequent in nondipper ICH patients.

Conclusion: The results of the study suggest that in ICH nondipping is associated with a decrease in arterial compliance. The Selleck QNZ global risk load for target organ damage in ICH patients is higher in nondippers.”
“Electron transport variations in individual ZnS nanowires synthesized through a chemical vapor deposition process were in situ studied in transmission electron microscope

under convergent electron-beam irradiation (EBI). It was found that the transport can dramatically be enhanced using proper irradiation conditions. The conductivity mechanism was revealed based on a detailed study of microstructure and composition evolutions under irradiation. EBI-induced Zn-rich domains’ appearance and related O doping were mainly responsible for the conductivity improvements. First-principles theoretical calculations additionally indicated that the generation of midbands within a ZnS band gap might also contribute to the improved conductivity.”
“Background-Previous studies on familial risk of ischemic stroke have supported genetic influence on the disease incidence. This study aimed to characterize these familial effects in a nationwide population-based study by taking into account sibling relations, sex of siblings, and age of onset, with respect to ischemic stroke incidence.

Results: The results of the first study show that the


Results: The results of the first study show that the

curves found for the Hebrew and the Arabic translations of the LittlEARS (R) Auditory Questionnaire are essentially similar to those previously found for other languages. These curves reflect the age dependency of auditory skills. Furthermore, in the group with cochlear implants the developmental pattern was different than that of the normal hearing group, with click here an initial steep increase and a later slower improvement. This trend appeared both in curves of groups and in curves of individuals (individuals whose parents completed the questionnaire at several points in time). There was a high correlation between scores on the LittlEARS (R) Auditory Questionnaire and results of other audiologic tests, showing validity of results with the LittlEARS (R) Auditory Questionnaire.

Conclusion: Both the Hebrew and Arabic versions of the LittlEARS (R) Auditory Questionnaire were found to be reliable and valid tools for assessment of the development of auditory behavior in children up to the age of 24 months. Furthermore, the LittlEARS (R) Auditory Questionnaire in both languages is useful in monitoring the progress of children with cochlear implant. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The keratoameloblastoma

is a rare histologic variant of ameloblastoma. Fewer than 15 cases of keratoameloblastoma have been documented in the LDN-193189 inhibitor literature. We report a new case of keratoameloblastoma in a 21-year-old female patient with a unilocular radiolucent lesion between the roots of the right mandibular incisors. We describe the clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic features of this lesion along with a review on the characteristics of previous cases. We also discuss about classification and management of this lesion.”
“Nutritional deficiencies, especially micronutrient

deficiencies, can occur in obese find more individuals. Surgical treatment may aggravate or cause these deficiencies, depending on the type of procedure, food intake and the use of multivitamins, minerals or other supplements. The objective of the study was to evaluate the nutrient intake of women who had undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery.

A cross-sectional, controlled study was conducted among 44 women after RYGB (operated-group, OG; mean years post-operation = 3.4) and a control group of 38 healthy women (non-operated group, NOG) matched by age and economic condition. The women reported their dietary intake using a 4-day record. The Dietary Reference Intakes was used as a reference.

The macronutrient contributions to dietary energy intake presented an acceptable distribution for proteins and carbohydrates. Lipid intake was high among women in the OG and the NOG (43.2 and 55.3 %, respectively). In the evaluation of micronutrients, a statistically significant difference was observed between the groups for iron, zinc and vitamins B1 and B12.

Nur77 plays a key role at all levels of the hypothalamus-pituitar

Nur77 plays a key role at all levels of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis during the stress response.

However, the participation of Nur77 in extra-hypothalamic responses to stress is unknown. In this study, we studied the impact of acute and repeated immobilization stress on Nur77 expression in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST), a region involved in autonomic, neuroendocrine, and behavioral responses to stress. After a single session of immobilization stress we observed a significant increase of Nur77-like immunoreactivity Compound C in the BNST. This effect is not lost with repeated exposure to stress, since Nur77-like immunoreactivity and Nur77 mRNA in BNST were increased after the fifteenth stress session. The administration of desipramine, a specific inhibitor of noradrenaline reuptake, prevented the increase in Nur77-like immunoreactivity and mRNA induced by stress in rats subjected to repeated exposure to immobilization stress. Our results show that acute and repeated stress modulates Nur77 expression in BNST and suggest that Nur77 participates in extra-hypothalamic responses to stress.”
“The Wisconsin beta-catenin pathway Inventory of Smoking Dependence

Motives (WISDM) assesses 13 domains of smoking motivation emphasized by diverse theoretical perspectives. Emerging findings support a distinction between four primary dependence motives (PDM) indexing core features of tobacco dependence and nine secondary dependence motives (SDM) indexing accessory features. The current study explored the validity of this distinction using data from two samples (Ns = 50 and BIIB057 mouse 88) of college smokers who self-monitored their reasons for smoking with electronic diaries. PDM scores were associated with diary endorsement of habitual or automatic motives for smoking individual cigarettes, which are conceptually consistent with the content of the PDM subscales. SDM did not clearly predict conceptually related self-monitored motives

when tested alone. However, when these two correlated scale composites were co-entered, PDM predicted being a daily vs. nondaily smoker, being higher in nicotine dependence, and smoking individual cigarettes because of habit or automaticity. Conversely, after PDM-SDM co-entry, the unique variance in the SDM composite predicted the tendency to report smoking individual cigarettes for situational or instrumental motives (e.g., to control negative affect). The results suggest that the PDM composite may reflect core motivational features of nicotine dependence in these young smokers. The relative prominence of primary motives in advanced or dependent use may be even clearer when motives for smoking are assessed in real time rather than reported via questionnaire. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The positions of nucleosomes in eukaryotic genomes determine which parts of the DNA sequence are readily accessible for regulatory proteins and which are not.

She was treated with repetitive thrombolysis after surgical embol

She was treated with repetitive thrombolysis after surgical embolectomy of the brachial artery. The second patient was symptomatic with splenic infarction and mesenteric ischemia. She was treated with a single cycle of systemic thrombolysis followed by ileocoecal resection. The third patient presented with a TAMT obstructing the left common carotid artery, causing ischemic stroke. After systemic thrombolysis, a reduction in thrombus size was documented; however, the patient died later, of acute heart failure, during the clinical course. On follow-up 6 months after the incidences, the 2 surviving patients were in good condition and free

of thromboembolic events. We show that Ubiquitin inhibitor systemic thrombolytic therapy can be performed successfully in patients with TAMT.”
“PURPOSE: To determine the efficacy of light-adjustable intraocular lenses (IOL) in correcting residual spherical and cylindrical errors in patients with axial myopia.

SETTING: Center for Vision Science, Ruhr University Eye Clinic, Bochum, Germany.

DESIGN: Prospective cohort study.

METHODS: Light-adjustable IOLs were implanted in eyes with axial myopia and treated with spatial irradiance profiles delivered by a digital light-delivery

device to induce a target spherical and/or spherocylindrical refractive change. Once the desired correction was achieved, the power of the IOL was locked in (ie, photo locking). The manifest refraction, uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), and corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) were determined 1, 6, and 12 months after lock-in to determine the achieved refractive corrections and their stability.

RESULTS: Twelve months postoperatively, 20 (96%) of the 21 eyes

studied were within +/- 0.50 diopter (D) of the intended selleck chemicals refractive outcome and 17 (81%) were within +/- 0.25 D. One eye had a 0.325 D change in mean refractive spherical equivalent (MRSE). The change in MRSE in the other 20 eyes was less than 0.250 D between 1 month after lock-in and the 3-, 6-, and 12-month postoperative visits.

CONCLUSIONS: The light-adjustable IOL reduced postoperative spherical and cylindrical errors of up to 2.00 D. Postoperative refractive errors were successfully corrected, and there was a significant improvement in UDVA with concomitant maintenance of CDVA. The achieved refractive change was stable after the adjustment and lock-in procedures.”
“Cells need to adapt to the external environment in order to survive. Signal transduction pathways are crucial mechanisms that allow cells to sense and respond to extracellular stimuli. Among the signal transduction pathways, we point out the cascades mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). The MAPKs are conserved from yeast to human and play relevant roles in the physiology of the cell. In pathogenic fungi these MAPK pathways control virulence factors.

The extra electrons appear to originate

from a change in

The extra electrons appear to originate

from a change in the local bonding configuration of V at the LDN-193189 cell line La-O terminated substrate surface as determined by Z-contrast imaging. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3601870]“
“Background: The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been implied in the pathogenesis of various diseases including acute and chronic pancreatitis. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is the key enzyme in activating the RAS. Deletion (D)-type polymorphism in the 16th intron of the ACE gene has been associated with higher serum levels of the enzyme. Inhibition of ACE was found to ameliorate acute pancreatitis in animal models suggesting that ACE plays a role in pathogenesis and progression

of acute pancreatitis. Objectives were to investigate the occurrence of the ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in acute pancreatitis patients and its association with the severity of the disease.

Material and Methods: Seventy-nine acute pancreatitis patients and 95 healthy controls were evaluated. Acute pancreatitis cases were grouped as mild or severe according to the Atlanta criteria. Main outcome measure: The presence of the ACE I/D polymorphism.

Results: ACE gene I and D allele Hippo pathway inhibitor frequency of patients (44% and 56%) were similar to controls (45% and 55%, respectively). There were no significant differences in severity of pancreatitis between patients with the ACE-insertion or ACE-insertion/deletion versus ACE-deletion genotypes.

Conclusions: The ACE gene deletion polymorphism is neither a risk

factor for development of acute pancreatitis nor contributes to the severity of disease or development of complications.”
“BACKGROUND: No prior reports documenting the safety and diagnostic yield of cardiac catheterization and endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) in heart transplant recipients include multicenter data.

METHODS: Data on the safety and diagnostic yield of EMB procedures performed in heart transplant recipients were recorded in the Congenital Cardiac Catheterization Outcomes Project database at 8 pediatric centers during a 3-year period. Adverse events (AEs) were classified according to a 5-level severity scale. Generalized estimating equation models identified risk factors for high-severity AEs (HSAEs; Levels 3-5) and non-diagnostic biopsy samples.

RESULTS: A total of 2,665 EMB cases were performed in 744 A-1155463 price pediatric heart transplant recipients (median age, 12 years [interquartile range, 4.8, 16.7]; 54% male). AEs occurred in 88 cases (3.3%), of which 28 (1.1%) were HSAEs. AEs attributable to EMB included tricuspid valve injury, transient complete heart block, and right bundle branch block. Amongst 822 cases involving coronary angiography, 10 (1.2%) resulted in a coronary-related AE. There were no myocardial perforations or deaths. Multivariable risk factors for HSAEs included fewer prior catheterizations (p = 0.006) and longer case length (p < 0.001).

Heritability and bivariate genetic and environmental correlations

Heritability and bivariate genetic and environmental correlations were assessed by Sequential Oligogenic Linkage Analysis routines in 1012 family members. We examined 1943 tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 233 inflammatory pathway genes with >= 5 minor allele carriers using a general genetic linear model. Clinical correlates explained 2.4% (CD40 ligand) to 28.5% (C-reactive protein) of the variability in inflammatory biomarkers. Estimated heritability ranged from 10.9% (isoprostanes) to 44.8% (P-selectin). Most correlations between

biomarkers were weak although statistically significant. A total of 45 single-nucleotide polymorphism-biomarker associations met the q-value threshold of 0.25. Novel top single-nucleotide polymorphisms LY2835219 chemical structure were observed in ICAM1 gene CA3 datasheet in relation to intercellular adhesion molecule-1 concentrations (rs1799969, P = 1.32 x 10(-8)) and MPO in relation to myeloperoxidase (rs28730837, P = 1.9 x 10(-5)). Lowest P values for trans-acting single-nucleotide polymorphisms were observed for APCS with monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 concentrations (rs1374486, P = 1.01 x 10(-7)) and confirmed for IL6R with interleukin-6 concentrations (rs8192284, P = 3.36 x 10(-5)). Novel potential candidates (APCS, MPO) need to be replicated.

Conclusions-Our community-based

data support the relevance of clinical

and genetic factors for explaining variation in inflammatory biomarker traits. (Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2009; 2: 229-237.)”
“Objectives: To evaluate the influence of planning endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) with a three-dimensional Bcl-2 inhibitor (3D) workstation on early and midterm outcomes.

Methods: All patients undergoing infrarenal EVAR performed between 2006 and 2009 at our institution were included in the current study. Prior to 2008 (group 1), endograft sizing was performed by interrogation of computed tomography angiography axial images. After 2008 (group 2), endograft sizing was routinely performed using a 3D workstation (Aquarius, Terarecon), allowing for multiplanar reconstruction and centerline analysis. Pre-, perk, postoperative, and follow-up data were prospectively entered in an electronic database. All postoperative complications and subsequent secondary interventions depicted during the 2-year period following EVAR were compared. Secondary intervention and mortality rates were defined at 2 years and compared. Freedom from secondary intervention and overall survival rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method during follow-up and compared by log-rank test.

Results: A total of 295 patients (149 patients in group 1 and 146 patients in group 2) were included.

Two in-hospital deaths occurred, and five patients died during fo

Two in-hospital deaths occurred, and five patients died during follow-up.

Patients were followed for 1 year after treatment. Eight (9 %) patients treated conservatively had a mild degree of back pain, and one (1 %) patient presented with mild muscular weakness. Among surgically treated patients, 12 (10 %) had only mild neurological impairment, one foot drop, AZD4547 one cauda equine dysfunction, but 4 were paraplegic. Twenty-seven

(23 %) complained of varying degrees of back pain.

Conservative measures are safe and effective for carefully selected patients without spondylodiscitic complications. Failure of conservative therapy requires surgery that can guarantee thorough debridement, decompression, restoration of spinal alignment, and correction of instability. Surgeons should master various techniques to achieve adequate debridement, and pedicle screw instrumentation may safely be used if needed.”
“Serum and follicular fluid zinc concentrations were investigated in patients undergoing assisted reproductive treatment. No correlation was found between zinc and oestradiol concentrations in serum. At the time of oocyte

retrieval, zinc concentrations in follicular fluid were significantly lower than serum concentrations (P < 0.0001). The expression of the two families of zinc transporters, ZnT and ZiP, as well as the metal regulatory transcription factors, MTF1 and 2, and metallothioneins, which are both involved in regulatory aspects of zinc transport, was assayed in cumulus cells this website and in germinal-vesicle oocytes. Most of the

zinc transporters, metallothioneins and metal regulatory transcription factor are expressed in oocytes and not in cumulus cells. This may indicate an important role for zinc, in particular with potential linking to genome stability during early embryonic development. In contrast, cumulus cells seem to be at the end of their life’s journey, with weak expression of transcriptional activity linked Liproxstatin-1 molecular weight to cellular housekeeping. (C) 2011, Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Anergia (lack of energy) is a newly delineated, criterion-based geriatric syndrome. Because heart failure (HF) is a common chronic condition among older adults and a because a cardinal symptom of HF is reduced energy, we characterized the degree of anergia ill subjects with HF and evaluated its relevance to disease severity, functional performance, and quality of life.

Methods and Results: Prospective 3-month cohort study among a convenience sample of 61 Subjects (61 +/- 15 years, 48% women, ejection fraction 41 +/- 16%) with New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class I-III HF were Studied. The criterion for anergia was based on the major criterion “”sits around for lack of eneroy”" and any 2 of 6 minor criteria.

Journal of Human Hypertension

(2009) 23, 718-727; doi: 10

Journal of Human Hypertension

(2009) 23, 718-727; doi: 10.1038/jhh.2009.8; published online 12 March 2009″
“Ferromagnetic resonance, in 7 to 18 GHz frequency range, is used to investigate a series of 11 sputtered Permalloy (Py)/Cu/Co trilayers and Py/Cu/Co/NiO spin valve system. The experimental data, frequency versus applied magnetic field, agree quit well with the theoretical model. The magnetic coupling between Py and Co is found to be ferromagnetic with effective magnetic coupling parameter values increasing from 0.05 to 0.1 erg/cm(2) as the interlayer Cu thickness decreases from 10 to 2 nm. While the magnetic coupling leads to a decrease in the resonance fields, H-R, of the modes, the exchange anisotropy at the Co/NiO interface shifts the mode upwards. However the shift is more important for the optical mode than for the acoustic one. Hysteresis curves, qualitatively, confirm the ferromagnetic coupling. VX-689 manufacturer The antiferromagnetic NiO layer leads

to a slight increase in the coercive field. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3476269]“
“Electrodiagnostic techniques have been utilized in surgery since the early 1960s. These techniques have been primarily used in neurosurgery; however, with the introduction of neuromodulation for voiding dysfunction, these techniques have now found their way into the field of female pelvic medicine. This article will review techniques applicable to evaluate pelvic floor function as it relates to neuromodulation. It will also review Trichostatin A inhibitor the literature describing how these techniques are used to help determine appropriate candidates as well as improve surgical outcomes. A PubMed Fer-1 solubility dmso search was conducted using the terms neuromodulation, Interstim, electrodiagnosis, electrodiagnostic

techniques, electromyography with limits to the pelvic floor, and voiding dysfunction. Eight articles and three abstracts were found that directly related to the use of electrodiagnostic techniques as they apply to neuromodulation. Electrodiagnostic techniques may play a role in helping predict appropriate candidates for neuromodulation as well as improve surgical outcomes.”
“Whether left ventricular mass (LVM) should be normalized to different indexes in relation to body size is still debated. We sought to evaluate the prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) defined by different indexation criteria in a cohort of hypertensive subjects categorized according to body mass index (BMI). A total of 2213 essential hypertensive subjects included in the Evaluation of Target Organ Damage in Hypertension (ETODH) were divided in three groups according to BMI thresholds (<25, 25-29.9 and >= 30 kg m(-2)). All patients underwent extensive investigations including quantitative echocardiography. LVH was defined as an LVM index equal to or higher than (1) 125 g m(-2) in men and 110 g m(-2) in women, (2) 51 g m(-2.7) in men and 47 g m(-2.7) in women.