“Many bacterial pathogens produce diffusible signal factor

“Many bacterial pathogens produce diffusible signal factor (DSF)-type quorum sensing (QS) signals in modulation of virulence and biofilm formation. Previous work on Xanthomonas campestris showed that the RpfC/RpfG two-component system is involved in sensing and responding to DSF signals, but little is known in other microorganisms. Here we show that

in Fer-1 Burkholderia cenocepacia the DSF-family signal cis-2-dodecenoic acid (BDSF) negatively controls the intracellular cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) level through a receptor protein RpfR, which contains Per/Arnt/Sim (PAS)-GGDEF-EAL domains. RpfR regulates the same phenotypes as BDSF including swarming motility, biofilm formation, and virulence. In addition, the BDSF-mutant phenotypes could be rescued by in trans expression of RpfR, or its EAL domain that functions as a c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase. BDSF is shown to bind to the PAS domain of RpfR with high affinity and stimulates its phosphodiesterase JQ-EZ-05 activity through induction of allosteric conformational changes. Our work presents a unique and widely conserved DSF-family signal receptor that directly links

the signal perception to c-di-GMP turnover in regulation of bacterial physiology.”
“Background. No specific data have been published on primary renal disease (PRD) in young adults with end-stage renal failure (ESRF). For children, congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) account for 50% of renal failure and other congenital and familial disease comprise 20%. This remains true for teenage children in paediatric registries.\n\nMethods. To investigate the causes of ESRF in young adults, the UK Renal Registry data for the period 2000-2006 have been reviewed and PRD reported for all aged 18-39 years. For comparison, US Renal

Data System (USRDS) results S63845 are available for age groups 0-19, 20-29 and 30-39 years. These data are also compared with data reported by the British Association of Paediatric Nephrology (BAPN).\n\nResults. For the UK, there is a rise in the rate of ‘aetiology uncertain’ from 6% at 12-15 years to 21% by 18-21 years. This figure of 21% remains constant for the older patients in their third and fourth decades and can be increased by at least 5% by adding ‘glomerulonephritis; histologically examined but unspecified’; but these figures compare with unknown rates of 36% for the US age group 20-29 years. In the UK, for those 18-21 years, ‘glomerulonephritis’ accounts for 28%, when ‘Alport’s disease’ (6.5%) and ‘unspecified’ (4.5%) are excluded, which compares with age 12-15 of 26%. At age 18-21 years in the UK, there is a sharp decline in all CAKUT (26%) when compared with the BAPN incidence for the 12-15 age group of 45%. For those in their third decade, diabetes accounts for 14-18% of diagnoses, distorting our ability to compare data by percentage.

The odds ratio for hospitalization for respiratory illness was 1

The odds ratio for hospitalization for respiratory illness was 1.83 for very low birth weight (95% confidence interval, 1.28-2.62; P = 0.001) and 1.34 for moderately low birth weight (95% confidence interval, 1.17-1.53; P < 0.0005). This association remained after adjustment

for birth year, sex, maternal age, EGFR inhibitor race, residence, and marital status.\n\nConclusions: Adults with a history of very low birth weight or moderately low birth weight were at increased risk of hospitalization for respiratory illness.”
“Vibrio harveyi hemolysin (VHH) is considered a major pathogenic virulence factor to fish. However, the VHH active-site mutant has lost all hemolytic and phospholipase activities as well as pathogenicity. In this study, the effect of VHH on erythrocytes and a gill cell line from flounder was elucidated. Erythrocyte membranes formed thin tubular protrusions immediately after exposure to VHH, and membrane corrugations were evident after extended incubation. In contrast, the mutant VHH did not induce any gross morphological changes. With VHH-treated FG-9307 cells, a cell line derived

from flounder click here gill, destruction of organelles and formation of features resembling apoptotic bodies were observed. Immunogold staining showed that a large amount of VHH was deposited on the membranes and membrane debris of erythrocytes and FG-9307 cells after treatment with VHH. Apoptotic features, such as chromatin condensation and apoptotic bodies, were observed in VHH-treated FG-9307 cells using DAPI staining. Moreover, cell cycle analysis showed that VHH increased the proportion of cells in G1 phase. In addition, VHH significantly increased the percentage of apoptosis, the number of TUNEL positive apoptotic cells, and caspase-3 activity in FG-9307 cells when compared with the untreated controls. These data suggested that VHH killed the cells through apoptosis via the caspase

activation pathway. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Intl1 mediates the recombination of antibiotic-resistant gene cassettes between different integrons in the same cell, facilitating the persistence and dissemination of these genes. Historically, integrase activity has been measured by conjugating recombinant products from donor cells overexpressing integrase and quantifying them in recipient cells. Here we report the first MX69 supplier measurements of the steady-state intracellular abundance of integrase-mediated recombination products in strains expressing natural or high Intl1 levels. Recombination products in both high and natural integrase strains increased markedly through late log phase and continued to rise in stationary phase in the high integrase strain, but declined in the natural expression strain. Simple acquisition of gene cassettes was seen only in strains expressing high integrase; in strains with natural integrase levels, only cointegrates between the two integron-bearing plasmids were detectable at all growth stages.

The greater functional connectivity between reward and self-contr

The greater functional connectivity between reward and self-control regions, in conjunction with weaker activation of self-control neurocircuitry, may render these children more susceptible to food advertisements, placing

them at elevated risk for over-feeding and obesity.”
“The electrodeposition process of nickel and the substrate used for the electrodeposition can this website be improved to obtain an effective catalyst for methanol oxidation. Thus, nanoparticles of nickel have been uniformly electrodeposited on the surface of previously anodized titanium at 5 V during 1 h. The optimized microstructure has been studied by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XPS and argon-ion etching experiments have revealed the composition profile of the titanium/titania/nickel thin film electrode. Metallic Ni is detected by XRD. The nickel particles dispersed in a porous TiO2 substrate have great catalytic activity for methanol oxidation in basic solution and through the redox couple NiO(OH)/Ni(OH)(2). The optimized titania substrate yields to electrodes (crystalline titanium/amorphous titania/nanocrystalline nickel) with higher catalytic activity than non-anodized metallic titanium (titanium/nickel).

However, further oxidation and thickening of the titania film drives to poorer electrochemical behavior. The SEM and EDS results show that the nickel particles exhibit certain tendency to agglomerate and to form spherical particles NSC 23766 of around 2 mu m. This electrode material also is active to oxidize ethanol, check details but this activity is poorer.”
“A mixed integer linear optimization model is presented for providing a cooperative system between Air Traffic Control Officers who manage the airspace for aircraft conflict detection and resolution. Elsewhere we have introduced the model for dealing with velocity and altitude changes in a given air sector. In this work, we extend the

model to cover the important problem of coordinating the decisions of the Air Traffic Control Officers of different air sectors. The new model allows the aircraft to ascend or descend one or more altitude levels. It is so tight that a state-of-the-art mixed integer linear optimization solver provides the solution in a very affordable computing time even for large-scale instances. It is worth pointing out that only in very few pilot instances of the testbed, the software engine needs to use the branch-and-cut phase of the solver.”
“To detect E(e)St-genome species in Pseudoroegneria and Elytrigia, the primers ES45 (5′-GTAGGCGACGGTTTTCA-3′) and ES261 (5′-TCGCTACGTTCTTCATC-3′) were designed as sequence characterized amplified region markers based on the 6-base pair indel in internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) regions and conserved sites in the 5.8S regions, respectively.

5 yrs) Blood was collected into a plastic tube containing 4 U/ml

5 yrs). Blood was collected into a plastic tube containing 4 U/ml FC dalteparin, 1.75 mu g/ml of the Tab (anti-CD41) monoclonal antibody

directed against platelet GPIIb, and 1.0 mu g/ml of an ALEXA 555-conjugated rabbit anti-mouse second antibody. Within STI571 mouse 30-90 min, the blood was then withdrawn at 667 and 1330 sec(-1) through a special flow chamber allowing for real-time epifluorescence digital videomicroscopy of platelets interacting with a microfibrillar collagen substrate. With MetaMorph software (Universal Imaging) we quantified the percent area (PA) covered by and total volume (TV) of adherent platelet aggregates within a 435 mu mx580 mu m field of view.\n\nResults: At 667 sec(-1) after 1 min PA and TV were similar for patients and controls, but at 1330 sec(-1) PA was 9.32 +/- 4.21 (mean +/- SD) for patients, a value lower (p<0.001) than the 12.8 +/- 3.39 for controls. TV was (1.43 +/- 0.91)x10(4) for patients, a value also lower (p<0.001) than the (2.22 +/- 0.77)x10(4) for controls. PA or TV was below the 2.5th

percentile for controls in 10 patients (36%) and both PA and TV were below the 2.5th percentile in eight.\n\nConclusions: The novel flow device found that PA and TV were significantly reduced under high shear stress in vWD patients compared to normal controls. However, there was some overlap between the vWD and the control group, suggesting that some vWD patients had normal platelet adhesion/aggregation under the conditions studied. Further study with a higher shear rate appears indicated. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A novel silica-coated multiwall carbon nanotube (MWNTs) with CdTe quantum dots nanocomposite was click here synthesized in this paper. Here, we show the in situ growth of crystalline CdTe quantum dots on the surfaces of

oxidized MWNTs. The approach proposed herein differs from previous attempts to synthesize CUDC-907 nanotube assemblies in that we mix the oxidized MWNTs into CdCl(2) solution of CdTe nanocrystals synthesized in aqueous solution. Reinforced the QD-MWNTs heterostructures with silica coating, this method is not invasive and does not introduce defects to the structure of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and it ensures high stability in a range of organic solvents. Furthermore, a narrow SiO(2) layer on the MWNT-CdTe heterostructures can eliminate the biological toxicity of quantum dots and carbon nanotubes. This is not only a breakthrough in the synthesis of one-dimensional nanostructures, but also taking new elements into bio-nanotechnology. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Pathogenesis of Salmonella depends upon a large number of factors controlled by an array of genes that synergise into actual virulence. The goal of this study was to detect Salmonella invA, spiC and sipC directly from clinical specimens, using the dot blot hybridization assay. We detected invA, spiC and sipC as a one combination from 4.5% (95% Cl: 2.21 to 8.64) human feacal and 35.2% (95% Cl: 26.4 to 45.

Particular focus has been placed on placebo-controlled studies fo

Particular focus has been placed on placebo-controlled studies following a single seizure with supportive electroencephalographic and/or selleck inhibitor brain imaging evidence, in the hope of identifying a realistic design that will satisfy licensing

authorities on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean.”
“This article includes a review of major intravenous and endovascular stroke trials, treatment options, and future aspects of acute stroke treatment in hemispheric and vertebrobasilar stroke. Since the invention of local intraarterial thrombolysis by Hermann Zeumer in 1981, acute stroke diagnostics and treatment have undergone dramatic improvement. This article addresses major topics in recent stroke treatment debates: optimization of patient selection, intravenous versus endovascular therapy, time window limitations, combined treatment with intravenous/intraarterial bridging therapies (intravenous/intraarterial recombinant tissue plasminogen activator [rtPA] bridging and intravenous glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor/intraarterial rtPA bridging) and modern endovascular treatment modes like percutaneous

transluminal angioplasty (PTA)/stenting and mechanical thrombectomy devices. Modern acute stroke therapy networks Selleck GSK621 should optimize their non-invasive diagnostic capacity to early identify candidates for endovascular therapy with rapid access to specialized neuroendovascular centers using standard protocols. The most promising approach in

acute stroke treatment seems to be a combination of intravenous and endovascular revascularization procedure, combining early treatment initiation with direct clot manipulation and PTA/stenting in underlying stenosis with atherothrombotic occlusions. Further randomized studies comparing intravenous and endovascular treatment, mainly in the anterior circulation, have to be expected and need wide support of the neurologic and neuroradiologic stroke community.”
“Nature routinely carries out small-scale chemistry within lipid bound cells and organelles. Liposome-lipid nanotube networks are being developed by many researchers in attempt to imitate these membrane enclosed environments, with the selleck chemical goal to perform small-scale chemical studies. These systems are well characterized in terms of the diameter of the giant unilamellar vesicles they are constructed from and the length of the nanotubes connecting them. Here we evaluate two methods based on intrinsic curvature for adjusting the diameter of the nanotube, an aspect of the network that has not previously been controllable. This was done by altering the lipid composition of the network membrane with two different approaches. In the first, the composition of the membrane was altered via lipid incubation of exogenous lipids; either with the addition of the low intrinsic curvature lipid soy phosphatidylcholine (soy-PC) or the high intrinsic curvature lipid soy phosphatidylethanolamine (soy-PE).

The association of SNPs with tumor recurrence and overall surviva

The association of SNPs with tumor recurrence and overall survival was then analyzed by additive, dominant, recessive, and https://www.selleckchem.com/products/pf-04929113.html overdominant models in a cohort of 156 HCC

patients. Results: In terms of tumor recurrence, heterozygous of SNP rs1990172 and SNP rs975263 showed a significant high risk of relapse using univariate and multivariate analysis (overdominant, HR(95%CI)=2.27 [1.41-3.66], P=0.001; HR(95%CI)=2.16 [1.37-3.39], P=0.001). But the difference between heterozygous of these two SNPs and overall survival did not reach a significance in all models. The other three investigated SNPs were not significantly associated with tumor recurrence and overall survival (P>0.05). In addition, we found no significant difference in genotype frequencies between HCC and controls. Conclusions: Our data suggest that SNP rs1990172 and SNP rs975263 in the MACC1 gene may be potential genetic markers for buy LY3039478 HCC recurrence in LT patients.”
“Purpose: The purpose of the study was to prospectively compare operative and postoperative characteristics and outcomes in elderly patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) compared with younger patients.\n\nPatients and Methods: Prospectively collected data from the Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society (CROES) Global PCNL Study database

were used. Elderly patients were defined as those aged 70 years and above, while younger patients were those between 18 and 70 years of age. Matched and unmatched group comparisons were performed based on imaging modality used for assessing stone-free status. Patient characteristics, operative data, and postoperative outcomes were compared.\n\nResults: The median age of the elderly group vs the young Copanlisib clinical trial group was 74 years (range 70-93 years) vs 49 years. In the unmatched analysis, staghorn stones were seen at higher rates in the elderly group (27.8% vs 21.8%, P = 0.014); however, the mean stone size was not significantly different (465.0 vs 422.8, P =

0.063). The length of hospitalization was significantly longer in the elderly group compared with the young group in the unmatched analysis (5 days vs 4.1 days, P < 0.001). The same difference was not apparent in the matched analysis (5.0 days vs 4.4 days, P = 0.288). Overall complication rates were not significantly different in the unmatched analysis. In the matched analysis, however, a statistically significant higher rate of overall complications was seen. Stone-free rates were similar among all groups.\n\nConclusion: PCNL in elderly patients over the age of 70 years produces results comparable to those seen in younger patients. With only a slightly higher-be it statistically significant-complication rate, the stone-free rate in older patients was the same as in the younger group.

45, 95% CI: 0 04-5 68, I-2 : 98%), under 5 year age group (OR: 2

45, 95% CI: 0.04-5.68, I-2 : 98%), under 5 year age group (OR: 2.06, 95% CI: 0.83-5.1, I-2 : 83%), the KPT-8602 supplier 5-15 year-age group (OR: 0.6, 95% CI: 0.31-1.16, I-2 : 81%) and adults (OR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.67-1.03,

I-2 : 25%). Six studies reported the incidences of SA in P. vivax infection and P. falciparum mono-infection; a comparable incidence of SA was found among infants (OR: 3.47, 95%: 0.64-18.94, I-2 : 92%), the 5-15 year-age group (OR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.06-8.57, I-2 : 82%). This was significantly lower in adults (OR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.62-0.92, I-2 : 0%). Five studies (n = 71079) compared the mortality rate between vivax malaria and falciparum malaria. A lower rate of mortality was found in infants with vivax malaria (OR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.5-0.76, I-2 : 0%), while this was comparable in the 5-15 year-age group (OR: 0.43, 95% CI: 0.06-2.91, I-2 : 84%) and the children of unspecified-age group (OR: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.59-1.01, I-2 : 0%). Conclusion: Overall, the present analysis identified that the incidence of SM in patients infected with P. vivax was considerable, indicating that P. vivax is a major cause of SM. Awareness of the clinical manifestations of vivax malaria should prompt

early detection. Subsequent treatment and monitoring of complications can be life-saving.”
“Cetirizine is indicated for the treatment of allergic conditions such as insect bites and stings, atopic and contact dermatitis, eczema, urticaria. This investigation deals with development of a novel ethosome-based 3-deazaneplanocin A concentration topical formulation of cetirizine dihydrochloride selleck chemicals for effective delivery. The optimised formulation consisting of drug, phospholipon 90 G(TM) and ethanol was characterised for drug content, entrapment efficiency, pH, vesicular size, spreadability and rheological behaviour. The ex vivo permeation studies through mice skin showed highest permeation flux (16.300 +/- 0.300 mu g/h/cm(2)) and skin retention (20.686 +/- 0.517

mu g/cm(2)) for cetirizine-loaded ethosomal vesicles as compared to conventional formulations. The in vivo pharmacodynamic evaluation of optimised formulation was assessed against oxazolone-induced atopic dermatitis (AD) in mice. The parameters evaluated were reduction in scratching score, erythema score, skin hyperplasia and dermal eosinophil count. Our results suggest that ethosomes are effective carriers for dermal delivery of antihistaminic drug, cetirizine, for the treatment of AD.”
“The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether difficulties in bimanual grasp posture planning arise from conflicts in response selection. Forty-five participants were assigned to one of three groups (symbolic cueing, semi-symbolic cueing, and direct cueing) and instructed to reach for, grasp, and place two objects on a board in various end-orientations, depending on condition.

Suspecting that the observed metabolic changes could have also ar

Suspecting that the observed metabolic changes could have also arised from medication, current medication was weaned off and replaced with levetiracetam, clonazepam, and levocarnitine (supportive therapy). Metabolic profiling conducted after 47 days showed normal alanine, branched-chain amino acids, ornithine, and

lactate-pyruvate ratio, suggesting that the earlier abnormalities could have been medication induced. We stress that metabolic changes resulting from chronic medication should be considered while interpreting a positive result when investigating an inherited metabolic disorder.”
“Background: Subtype-specific response to ketoamide selleck inhibitor NS3 protease inhibitors is observed in patients with genotype 1 HCV infection. Whether the genetic diversity in the molecular target site of ketoamide compounds prior to treatment plays a role for resistance development and lower treatment response in subtype 1a is poorly understood.

Methods: Using a public database, we retrieved worldwide NS3-sequence information of 581 dominant HCV variants from patients chronically infected with genotype 1 that were naive to direct-acting antivirals. We applied measures from phylogeny to study the pretreatment genetic diversity and complexity in NS3 full-length as well as the protease-helicase interface for subtype 1a and 1b, respectively. Results: We found polymorphic sites more frequently in variants of subtype 1b than subtype 1a. Moreover, a significantly higher number of BMS-345541 mouse synonymous and non-synonymous substitutions were found in subtype 1b (P smaller than 0.001). Transitions were find more more frequent than transversions, most notably in subtype 1a,

whereas the higher average number of nucleotide differences per site was found in subtype 1b. A comparison of NS3 full-length versus domain interface residues for both subtypes revealed a significant difference only for synonymous substitutions (P smaller than 0.001). Conclusions: Our study suggests that the nature of a mismatch nucleotide exchange in NS3 may constitute an important viral genetic factor for response to ketoamide protease inhibitors. Our analysis further suggests that the subtypespecific pace of resistance development seen in clinical trials is not primarily related to differences in genetic diversity in the direct acting antiviral naive population, but rather appears to correlate with the natural frequency of transition mutations characteristic of each subtype.”
“Isoprostanes comprise a class of membrane lipid metabolites produced during oxidative stress, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cystic fibrosis. They are widely recognized to evoke a variety of biological responses in airway and pulmonary vascular smooth muscle, lymphatics, and innervation. However, their effects on airway epithelium are largely unstudied.

These results suggest that all the examined hormones may affect t

These results suggest that all the examined hormones may affect the activity of the adipocytes. However

the hormones’ impacts depend on the presence of other hormones. Similarly, there was a substantial seasonality effect recorded regarding the interaction between the hormones. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The regulatory role of histone modifications with respect to the structure and function of chromatin is well known. Proteins and protein complexes establishing, erasing and binding these marks have been extensively studied. RNAs have only recently entered the picture of epigenetic click here regulation with the discovery of a vast number of long non-coding RNAs. Fast growing evidence suggests that such RNAs influence all aspects of histone modification biology. Here, we focus exclusively on the emerging functional interplay between RNAs and proteins that bind histone modifications. We discuss recent findings of reciprocally positive and negative regulations as well as

summarize the current insights into the molecular mechanism directing these interactions. (C) 2014 Published by Elsevier B.V.”
“The present study reports a rare case of primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) of the prostate. A 23-year-old male presented to Oita Medical Center (Oita, Japan) with the complaint of dysuria and anal pain. A large mass in the prostate and a number of swollen lymph nodes in the pelvic region were identified by a computed

tomography scan and magnetic Nepicastat order resonance imaging. The patient was, thus, admitted to Oita University Hospital (Yufu, Japan), where a biopsy of the prostate gland was performed. Histological analysis revealed small round cells that were positive for MIC-2 expression Luminespib datasheet and fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis detected a translocation involving Ewing sarcoma breakpoint region 1 at chromosome 22q12. Thus, a diagnosis of PNET of the prostate was established. Systemic chemotherapy was the selected treatment, however, a poor response was obtained. The patient succumbed approximately four months after the initial onset of symptoms. PNET of the prostate has been reported in eight cases worldwide; in comparison, the present case exhibited the most unsatisfactory outcome.”
“OBJECTIVE: Epidural scar adhesion is one of the major causes of the failed back surgery syndrome after laminectomy. Recent studies have shown that simvastatin has potent anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory properties. This study evaluates the effect of the topical application of simvastatin on reducing epidural scar adhesion after laminectomy in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, chitosan and simvastatin group. After laminectomy was performed at L1 level, simvastatin and chitosan were applied to the laminectomy sites. The control group received no additional treatment.

Transfection with ca-ROCK protein enhanced lymphatic

Transfection with ca-ROCK protein enhanced lymphatic PARP inhibitor tone, but was not associated with a significant change in basal [ Ca2+](i). Our data suggest that ROCK mediates normal tonic constriction and influences phasic contractions in lymphatics. We propose that ROCK modulates Ca2+ sensitivity of contractile proteins in lymphatics.”
“The selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor celecoxib constitutes the prototype of proapoptotic agents acting through the intrinsic death pathway in a Bcl-2 independent manner. To gain further insight into celecoxib-mediated apoptosis

regulation at the level of the mitochondria we tested in how far the crucial pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins Bak and Bax were involved using clones of the Bax-deficient Jurkat T-lymphoma cell model either expressing Bak (Jurkat Bak positive) or being negative for Bak (Jurkat Bak negative), or overexpressing

Selleckchem SBE-β-CD Bcl-2 (Jurkat Bcl-2). Celecoxib induced substantial apoptosis in Jurkat Bak-positive cells. overexpression. of Bcl-2 had only limited protective effects. However, loss of Bak-expression conferred almost complete resistance of Jurkat cells to celecoxib-induced apoptosis. Neither enhanced celecoxib-concentrations nor prolonged incubation times were sufficient to normalize apoptotic rates upon celecoxib-treatment in these Bak/Bax-negative cells. In line with that observation, siRNA-mediated silencing of Bak in the Bak-positive Jurkat cells largely reduced the extent of celecoxib-induced cell death. Interestingly, in celecoxib-sensitive Bak-positive cells, celecoxib-treatment resulted in down-regulation of the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein Mcl-1 which may contribute to celecoxib-mediated activation of Bak-dependent Z-DEVD-FMK mouse apoptosis. Taken together our data clearly show for the first time the functional relevance of Bak for celecoxib-induced apoptosis in

Bax-deficient Jurkat T-lymphoma cells. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“204 bacterial isolates from four Greek refinery sludge deposition sites were investigated for the presence of nahH and alkJ genes encoding key enzymes of both aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbon degradation pathways by PCR and DNA hybridisation. Members of Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Rhodococcus and Arthrobacter play important role in bioremediation processes in sandy/loam soil contaminated with oil and nahH and alkJ genes were present in the 73% of the isolates. Consortia of bacterial isolates that were used for biodegradation of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in crude oil using liquid cultures exhibited rates from 35% to 48% within 10 days of incubation.